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Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D. 26. February.2014 Wednesday Neuron 100 billion neurons in the brain share a number of common features: Cell body metabolic center of the neuron Dendrites receives connections from other neurons. Axon transmits information to other neurons Presynaptic terminals Synapse terminal region of the axon where one neuron forms a connection with another and conveys information through the process of synaptic transmission. To communicate with the postsynaptic cell, the presynaptic neuron needs to release a chemical messenger. Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Memory Adrenaline Dopamine Reward, addiction Histamine Noradrenaline Serotonin Mood Neuroglia Non-neuronal supporting cells Macroglia Microglia Ependymal cells PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • 12 PAIRS OF CRANIAL NERVES • 31 PAIRS OF SPINAL NERVES • ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES (SUCH AS GANGLIA) SENSORY SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM exteroceptors external stimuli (pain, touch, and temperature) proprioception receptors @ tendons, joint capsules, and muscles convey position sense http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v4/n7/fig_tab/nrn1141_F1.html AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM SENSORY – AFFERTENT FIBERS interoceptors in visceral organs convey stretch as well as pressure, chemoreception, and pain. Gyrus & Sulcus & Fissure SULCI-depressionsDIVIDE THE BRAIN INTO GYRI -elevationsLOBES are MADE UP BY GYRI Important station that receives the main sensory tracts (except the olfactory pathway). A station where much of the information is integrated and relayed to the cerebral cortex and many other subcortical regions. A key role in the integration of visceral and somatic functions.