... brain that receives
sensory signals and
sends them to correct
brain area for processing
Key Learning Guide - City Vision University
... 2. The left side of the brain is the locus of ________________ thought.
3. The right side of the brain is the locus of ________________ thought.
4. Chemical messengers are called______________________.
5. Neurons have a central body with wispy tendrils called ___________________.
... Exists in as many as a third of all synapses.
Drugs that boost GABA’s effects have a calming or
Reduced levels of GABA may play a role in emotional
disorders in which anxiety is a core feature.
Introduction to drugs and the brain
... Drugs Can Change Brain Circuitry
Drugs can “hijack” the brain’s natural connections and
change them, which can cause a variety of consequences
... Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which relay, amplify, and modulate signals
between a neuron and another cell. Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic
vesicles that cluster beneath the membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse, and are
released into the synaptic cleft, where they ...
... 2. Opiate-like substance found in the brain
4. Nervous system controlling heart, pupils of the
6. Chemical that affects a living organism
7. Powerful stimulant derived from a South American
signal travels along the axon.
13. Drug that makes you drowsy, drunk, uncoordinated
... • Metabolic tolerance
• Functional tolerance
• Cross tolerance
• No unitary mechanism
... Hormones: chemical messengers released into the blood
Endocrine system: relating to hormones, their functions,
Neurons: specialized nerve cells that make up the nervous
system and release transmitters
The Nervous System
... • Allows body to respond to stimuli
• 1. Central Nervous System:
• - brain
• - spinal cord
• 2. Peripheral Nervous System
- nerves leading away from cns
Cellular and Molecul..
... transduce intracellular signals by coupling to GTP-binding proteins
• odorant receptors themselves should exhibit significant diversity and are therefore likely to
be encoded by a multigene family
• expression of the odorant receptors should be restricted to the olfactory epithelium
Chapter 2 - Biological Basis of Behavior
... to be pushed into the synapse so that
focus is improved
BUT cause a depletion over time
triggers muscle contraction
important role in arousal and attention
Loss = linked to Alzheimer’s Disease
Psychoactive drugs • Drugs which affect mental processes • May be
... • A 4th way in which psychoactive drugs
can affect brain functioning:
involves disruption of the mechanisms by
which neurotransmitters are deactivated
• Neurotransmitters normally have only limited
period of time to bind to receptors
• Shortly after being released
• will either be broken down by en ...
Module 9: Synaptic Transmission
... neurons in the substantia nigra
• Symptoms include
– difficulty starting and stopping voluntary
– tremors at rest
– stooped posture
– poor balance
... Alzheimer’s Disease
• Deterioration of memory, reasoning,
and language skills
• Low levels of Ach found in those with
More Selective Serotonin Receptor Agonists
... Aim: Design serotonin receptor agonists that can be used as tracing molecules to directly visualize and monitor
serotonin receptor activity in the human brain in several clinical conditions.
The serotonergic receptor system has been linked to depression, anxiety, social phobia, schizophre ...
... Biological Basis for Understanding
... Interferes with homeostasis (temp.)
Feel depressed until body makes
enough of its own serotonin to feel
Destroys serotonin neurons axons and
After exposure to MDMA for 4 days, it
takes more than 7 years for your brain
... serotonin, acetylcholine, nitric oxide, and endorphins?
Starting from an arriving action potential explain what happens at the synapse. Your answer
should include the following terms (calcium, vesicle, neurotransmitter, exocytosis, diffusion,
receptor, activation, inactivation, reuptake, transporter ...
Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology (how drugs affect the mind) and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior. It entails research of mechanisms of neuropathology, pharmacodynamics (drug action), psychiatric illness, and states of consciousness. These studies are instigated at the detailed level involving neurotransmission/receptor activity, bio-chemical processes, and neural circuitry. Neuropsychopharmacology supersedes psychopharmacology in the areas of ""how"" and ""why"", and additionally addresses other issues of brain function. Accordingly, the clinical aspect of the field includes psychiatric (psychoactive) as well as neurologic (non-psychoactive) pharmacology-based treatments.Developments in neuropsychopharmacology may directly impact the studies of anxiety disorders, affective disorders, psychotic disorders, degenerative disorders, eating behavior, and sleep behavior.The way fundamental processes of the brain are being discovered is creating a field on par with other “hard sciences” such as chemistry, biology, and physics, so that eventually it may be possible to repair mental illness with ultimate precision. An analogy can be drawn between the brain and an electronic device: neuropsychopharmacology is tantamount to revealing not only the schematic diagram, but the individual components, and every principle of their operation. The bank of amassed detail and complexity involved is huge; mere samples of some of the details are given in this article.