final exam review
... b. Located proximally
c. Pertains to both sides
d. Carries a limb toward the body
e. Carries a limb away from the body
____ 154. Dyspnea:
a. Abnormal formation
b. Difficult breathing
c. Not able to sleep
d. Condition of lack of water
e. Not able to breathe
____ 155. Brady-:
A Novel Functionally Distinct Subtype of Striatal Neuropeptide Y
... and 0.5% Triton X-100 for 4 –5 h at room temperature. Sections were
then incubated in polyclonal antibody against NPY (1:1000; rabbit antineuropeptide Y; ImmunoStar; 22940), SOM (1:1000; rabbit anti-somatostatin; ImmunoStar; 20067), or NOS (1:1000; goat anti-neuronal nitric
oxide synthase; Abcam; Ab ...
Calcium Transients in the Garter Snake Vomeronasal Organ
... organ. J Neurophysiol 87: 1449 –1472, 2002; 10.1152/jn.00651.2001.
The signaling cascade involved in chemosensory transduction in the
VN organ is incompletely understood. In snakes, the response to
nonvolatile prey chemicals is mediated by the vomeronasal (VN)
system. Using optical techniques and fl ...
elsevier second proof - Michigan State University
... (Figure 3b): olfactory receptor cells; sustentacular
cells, a class of supporting cells; and basal cells,
the progenitor cells that give rise to new receptor
and sustentacular cells throughout life. The olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons with a
dendrite that terminates in cilia or microvil ...
Behavioural Brain Research Ventral pallidum roles in reward and
... given evidence for a ‘hedonic hotspot’ in the posterior ventral pallidum that we will describe below where ‘liking’ can actually be
enhanced by neurochemical activity.
This elimination of normal food reward (suppressed ‘liking’ and
‘wanting’, with enhanced aversion) that follows posterior ventral
Mechanisms of Leptin Action and Leptin Resistance
... and leptin-deﬁcient ob/ob animals (3). The
function of short-form LRs is less clear, although proposed roles include the transport
of leptin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
and the production of circulating LR extracellular domain to complex with leptin (10, 11).
Many of the effects of leptin r ...
Get PDF - IOS Press
... such as c-Fos in the brain, and the viral transneuronal labeling using pseudorabies virus make it possible to analyze the neurocircuitry of the stress-related central autonomic nervous system. Limbic systems (amygdala, lateral septum, infralimbic, insular,
ventromedial temporal cortical regions), an ...
Enteric Glia - Department of Physiology
... “second brain,” known as the enteric nervous system (ENS), resides within the walls of the intestines and controls the ongoing activities of the gastrointestinal tract. The entire circuitry of the ENS
is embedded in the gut wall and consists of aggregates of neurons and glia called enteric ganglia
The Role of Kv7 in Peripheral Neurons
... functional role of each Kv7 subunits within the peripheral sensory system have not been fully elucidated. In
this thesis, I first investigate the expression pattern of Kv7.5 with immunohistochemical techniques, which
allow me to show that Kv7.5 is localized in the axons of the Remak bundles (unmyeli ...
Anatomy & Physiology I
... سیستم عصبی، اعضای داخلی، در رگ های خون معلومات را درباره محیط داخلی تهیه میکند سیاله ها معموال بصورت شعوری در دریافت نمی گرددProprioreciptors
گوش داخلی موقعیت دارد، مفاصل، اوتار، در عضالت موقعیت و حرکت مفاصل و موازنه، طول و کشش عضله، در مورد موقعیت بدنمعلومات تهیه میکند ...
What the young brain tells the spinal cord: top down modulation of
... information in the spinal cord. In adults, the rostroventral medulla (RVM) can inhibit
and facilitate somatosensory processing in the adult dorsal horn, providing powerful
control of pain behaviours. In neonates, balanced descending control of processing of
dorsal horn activity is immature. Here, I ...
Theta Modulation in the Medial and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortices
... doi:10.1152/jn.01141.2009. Hippocampal neurons show a strong
modulation by theta frequency oscillations. This modulation is
thought to be important not only for temporal encoding and decoding
of information in the hippocampal system, but also for temporal
ordering of neuronal activities on timescale ...
Gastric Effects of Cholecystokinin and Its Interaction with Leptin on
... CNS. Previous studies indicate that CCK produces distinct
peripheral and central effects, and that the stomach and
vagus are peripheral sites of CCK action (Barber et al., 1990;
Lee et al., 1994). One component of the satiety effect of CCK
is mediated by CCK-A receptors at the periphery through
Structure and dynamics of the corticothalamic driver pathway in the
... processes is the rodent whisker system. Rodents can solve highly complicated tasks with their
whiskers alone, distributed receptors at the follicles require spatial integration and rhythmic
movements suggest temporal processing components.
The posterior group nucleus of the thalamus (PO) is in a key ...
Same Spinal Interneurons Mediate Reflex Actions of Group Ib and
... hindlimb nerves were transected and mounted on stimulating electrodes. Subcutaneous cuff electrodes were used for nerves accessed in
the iliac fossa: quadriceps (Q) and sartorius (Sart) nerves. The remaining nerves including the posterior biceps and semitendinosus
(PBST), anterior biceps and semimem ...
Histamine in the Nervous System
... bronchi. The presence of histamine in the brain, predominantly in the gray matter, was first shown by Kwiatkowski (1941 (378), and White (1959) (814) demonstrated
its formation and catabolism in the brain. The sedative
“side effects” of antihistamines (68) triggered early work
and suggestions for hi ...
Kir2 potassium channels in rat striatum are strategically
... subunits. They influence electrical activity in neuronal, cardial and neurosecretory cells10.
Kir4 is known to control K+ homeostasis in glial cells and the inner ear11. ATP-sensitive
Kir6 (KATP) channels play an important role in the pancreas; they influence the control of
insulin secretion12 in in ...
Neural Control - International Continence Society
... prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus. The sensory information required on
which to base behavioural decisions depends on
conscious perception of the degree of bladder fullness. In the infant, these higher pathways are not yet
functional, but social control of the bladder is g ...
Pallidal Discharge Related to the Kinematics of Reaching
... same targets via indirect pathways. Thus possible differences
in the movement-related discharge of GPe and GPi neurons
are of interest for models of basal ganglia function.
Because movement-related increases and decreases in the
discharge of neurons in either GPe or GPi are predicted to
have opposin ...
The Formation of Specific Synaptic Connections Between Muscle
... Labeling of motoneurons projecting to triceps brachii muscles. Tadpoles were reared through metamorphosis and kept for an additional
l-4 months to allow time for muscle afferents to form stable synaptic
connections with motoneurons. After simple behavioral tests of the
affected forelimb were made (s ...
Cholinergic Cells and Pathways
... with projection and augmenting activity as they
pointed out that ACh-sensitive cortical cells
respond to thalamic or peripheral sensory stimulation with repetitive after-discharges and changes
in the EEG. These notions were supported by the
ﬁnding of Frank (Hank) MacIntosh and Paul
Oborin (1953) of ...
Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are structures in the brain that are characterized by their extensive vasculature and lack of a normal blood brain barrier (BBB). The CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and peripheral blood flow; additionally they are an integral part of neuroendocrine function. The lack of a blood brain barrier allows the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural tissue to the peripheral blood stream, while still protecting it from toxic substances. CVOs can be classified into (a) sensory and (b) secretory organs. The sensory organs include the area postrema (AP), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis. They have the ability to sense plasma molecules and then pass that information into other regions of the brain. Through this, they provide direct information to the autonomic nervous system from the systemic circulation. The secretory organs include the subcommissural organ (SCO), the posterior pituitary, the pineal gland, the median eminence and the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. These organs are responsible for secreting hormones and glycoproteins into the peripheral vascular system using feedback from both the brain environment and external stimuli.All of the circumventricular organs, besides the SCO, contain extensive vasculature and fenestrated capillaries which leads to a ‘leaky’ BBB at the site of the organs. Furthermore, all CVOs contain neural tissue, allowing them to play a role in the neuroendocrine system. It is highly debated if the choroid plexus can be included as a CVO. It has a high concentration of fenestrated capillaries, but its lack of neural tissue and its primary role of producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually excludes the choroid plexus from the CVO classification.Research has also linked CVOs to body fluid regulation, cardiovascular functions, immune responses, thirst, feeding behavior and reproductive behavior.