Neurophysiology - American Physiological Society
... NEU 27. Diagram the steps that lead to phosphorylation of a channel protein when a Gs protein
NEU 28. Diagram the steps that lead to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and activation of protein
kinase C following activation of a Gq protein.
NEU 29. Describe how changes in neuronal membr ...
AXOTOMIZED SPINAL COMMISSURAL INTERNEURONS OF THE ADULT FELINE:
... nervous system and how it reacts to injury. Propriospinal commissural interneurons (PCIs
or CINs) are a class of neuron with axons that project through the ventral commissure to
the contralateral spinal cord. My goal was to examine the morphological, molecular, and
functional changes that occur to a ...
A Novel Functionally Distinct Subtype of Striatal Neuropeptide Y
... then incubated in polyclonal antibody against NPY (1:1000; rabbit antineuropeptide Y; ImmunoStar; 22940), SOM (1:1000; rabbit anti-somatostatin; ImmunoStar; 20067), or NOS (1:1000; goat anti-neuronal nitric
oxide synthase; Abcam; Ab1376) diluted in a solution containing 1%
NDS, 1% BSA, and 0.1% Trit ...
Muscimol-Induced Inactivation of Monkey Frontal Eye Field: Effects
... an initial neglect of the contralateral hemifield, a subtle increase in latencies of saccades, and a deviation of fixation, all
of which recovered within a few weeks (Keating and Gooley
1988; Latto and Cowey 1971; Lynch 1992; Schiller et al. 1980,
1987), though larger and more permanent effects have ...
Mechanisms of Leptin Action and Leptin Resistance
... LRb signaling, feedback inhibition, and the regulation of physiology. Leptin binding to the extracellular
domain of LRb, the functional leptin receptor isoform, mediates the activation of the intracellular,
LRb-associated Jak2 tyrosine kinase, resulting in Jak2 autophosphorylation on tyrosine residu ...
Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Huntington`s disease
... of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the survival and activity of the neurons that die in Huntington’s disease (HD) by reviewing the
evidence indicating that it involves profound changes in BDNF levels and that attempts to restore these levels are therapeutically interesting.
BDNF is a sma ...
THE SUBFORNICAL ORGAN AND AREA POSTREMA MEDIATE
... individual expends, the excess energy will be stored as adipose tissue with a prolonged
imbalance leading to an individual becoming overweight and, eventually, obese. Adipose
tissue, once thought of as solely a storage depot for excess triglycerides, also serves as an
endocrine organ which plays a c ...
Calcium Transients in the Garter Snake Vomeronasal Organ
... patterns of activity displayed a scattered appearance with a
heterogeneous organization in which it was possible to find
nonuniform foci of activity distributed in multiple epithelial
regions separated by silent sectors. Within each lamina there
were important variations in the amplitude and time co ...
REM Sleep - Test Page
... events during rest states, although determining which phasic
events might correspond to REM sleep twitches and which
might be the cetacean equivalent of myoclonic jerks occurring in
non-REM sleep is a difficult task. What is already clear is that very
few such jerks occur, on the order of 10 to f 00 ...
Targeting of Monomer/Misfolded SOD1 as a Therapeutic Strategy for
... SOD1 transgenic mice. The specific region(s) of the SOD1 protein to which these immunization approaches target are, however, unknown.
In contrast, we have previously shown, using a specific antibody [SOD1 exposed dimer interface (SEDI) antibody], that the dimer
interface of SOD1 is abnormally expose ...
Mechanisms of axon degeneration: From development to disease
... self-destruction similar in many ways to the active selfdestruction of cells during apoptosis (Coleman, 2005; Low and
Cheng, 2005; Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Raff et al., 2002).
Although the molecular mechanisms involved are different (but
see Williams et al., 2006; Kuo et al., 2006), the principles
Interaction of the Frontal Eye Field and Superior Colliculus for
... In the course of experiments on the recovery of the ability to
make saccades following SC lesions, we made several observations that suggested that this parallel relation between FEF
and SC may not be as robust as implied by these previous
experiments. In the experiments described here, we tested th ...
A decade of the anaphase-promoting complex in the nervous system
... in post-mitotic tissues beyond the control of the cell cycle. Components of Cdh1–APC were found ubiquitously
expressed in post-mitotic neurons, including in adult
mouse and human brains (Gieffers et al. 1999). However,
it was not until 2004 that the first neuronal function of
the anaphase-promoting ...
thesis - ETDA
... thalamus in turn may be the original site of malfunction or may receive aberrant signals
from the basal ganglia or even the cerebellum, which has a large input to the motor
An investigation of the sensory and motor innervation of extraocular
... only in mammals. Many vertebrates possess accessory EOMs, such as the retractor bulbi
muscle (Isomura, 1981). This muscle is correlated with the presence of a nictitating
membrane and both structures act synergisticly in reflex retraction of the globe in response to
corneal stimulation. Since the le ...
Rapid Translocation of Zn 2+ from Nerve Terminals
... Ca2⫹ channels (VDCC) in postsynaptic neurons (Koh and Choi
1994; Sensi et al. 1999; Weiss and Sensi 2000), where it can
directly influence various signaling cascades (Brewer et al.
1979; Hubbard et al. 1991; Park and Koh 1999). Although
these effects have been observed only in dissociated cells with ...
The circadian visual system, 2005
... explored to date, if a photic stimulus is sufficient to produce a
maximal phase shift, more photons at the same time or up to 2
h later have no additional effect on phase shift magnitude
(Nelson and Takahashi, 1999). In such cases, the circadian
system is deemed to be “saturated” with respect to its ...
Histamine in the Nervous System
... traction of smooth muscles in the gut and vasodilatation
(130). The stimulation of acid secretion in the stomach
(582) was also recognized early. Feldberg (172) demonstrated histamine release from mast cells in the lungs
during anaphylactic shock causing constriction of the
bronchi. The presence of ...
Highwire Regulates Guidance of Sister Axons in the
... powerful model system to investigate such axonal behaviors
(Heisenberg, 1998; Davis, 2005; Fahrbach, 2006). The MB is
composed of three neuronal subtypes—␥, ␣⬘/␤⬘, and ␣/␤ neurons—that can be distinguished by their birth order and the location of their axonal projections (Lee et al., 1999). Cell bod ...
Interactions between amygdala central nucleus and the ventral
... evidence for acquisition of conditioned ORs to CS+. Nevertheless,
neither these ipsilateral lesions nor any other lesion affected the
acquisition of food-cup behavior to CS+ (Fig. 2B), which was rapid in
all groups. Thus, the learning deﬁcit observed in the acquisition of
conditioned ORs in the ipsi ...
Electroencephalography - Department of Computational and
... from the currents within a single dendritic spine to the relatively gross
potentials that the EEG records from the scalp, much the same way that
economics can be studied from the level of a single individual's
personal finances to the macro-economics of nations. Neurons, or
nerve cells, are electric ...
The Role of Kv7 in Peripheral Neurons
... The Kv7 (KCNQ) channel is a family of voltage-gated potassium channels that is considered to be important
in the regulation of cellular excitability and axonal conduction. Previous studies have shown that peripheral
sensory neurons express Kv7.2, Kv7.3, and Kv7.5 subunits, and that suppression of Kv ...
Premovement neuronal activity
Premovement neuronal activity in neurophysiological literature refers to neuronal modulations that alter the rate at which neurons fire before a subject produces movement. Through experimentation with multiple animals, predominantly monkeys, it has been shown that several regions of the brain are particularly active and involved in initiation and preparation of movement. Two specific membrane potentials, the bereitschaftspotential, or the BP, and contingent negative variation, or the CNV, play a pivotal role in premovement neuronal activity. Both have been shown to be directly involved in planning and initiating movement. Multiple factors are involved with premovement neuronal activity including motor preparation, inhibition of motor response, programming of the target of movement, closed-looped and open-looped tasks, instructed delay periods, short-lead and long-lead changes, and mirror motor neurons.