Neurophysiology - American Physiological Society
... receptor membrane, peripheral axon process, central axon process, soma, sensory ganglia.
NEU 3. Write the Nernst equation, and explain the effects of altering the intracellular or
extracellular Na+, K+, Cl-, or Ca2+ concentration on the equilibrium potential for that ion.
NEU 4. Describe the normal ...
NEURAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING THE LEARNING
... oldest and most straightforward paradigms to study fear-related processes (Domjan,
2005; LeDoux, 1998; Pavlov, 1927). It is considered a model system to investigate the
neurobiological mechanisms of learning (Fanselow & Ledoux, 1999; Helmstetter &
Bellgowan, 1993; Kim & Jung, 2006; Maren, 2001). Dur ...
Calcium Transients in the Garter Snake Vomeronasal Organ
... Functional studies have demonstrated that ESS and ES20
evoke depolarizing currents in VN neurons and increase unit
activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) mitral cells, the
targets of the axons of receptor neurons of the VN epithelium
(Jiang et al. 1990; Luo et al. 1994; Taniguchi et al. 1998 ...
Emotional experiences of tension and suspense: psychological
... experiences evoked by music) and suspense evoked by a literary text. First, a behavioral study
explored the role of different tonal and expressive structural features of a musical piece
(harmony, melody, outer voices, dynamics, and expressive timing) as a mediator of musical
tension. Results of this ...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Reelin Signaling in the Adult
... demonstrate a specific context in which Reelin signaling may be initiated in the
intact brain and further emphasize that extracellular proteolysis of Reelin by tPA
and other yet-to-be identified proteases is important to consider when trying to
understand how altered Reelin processing and/or express ...
THE SUBFORNICAL ORGAN AND AREA POSTREMA MEDIATE
... expenditure and autonomic function via activation of its receptor (ObRb) in nuclei in the
central nervous system (CNS). This thesis investigates the involvement of two sensory
circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ (SFO) and area postrema (AP),
in mediating the central effects of lep ...
Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Huntington`s disease
... in the cerebral cortex and striatum of people with HD (Zuccato
et al., 2001), as well as in many mouse and cell models of the
disease (see Cattaneo et al., 2005 for a review). Furthermore,
although no underlying molecular mechanism has been
proposed to explain reduced neurotrophic support in other
Neuro-Opthalmology (Developments in Ophthalmology, Vol. 40)
... global layer MIFs. Palisade endings are unique to eye muscles, and have been found in all
mammalian species investigated up to now. The function of palisade endings is uncertain, but
it is possible that they are ‘sensory receptors’. Motoneurons innervating the eye muscles lie
in the oculomotor, troc ...
AXOTOMIZED SPINAL COMMISSURAL INTERNEURONS OF THE ADULT FELINE:
... from their dendrites. C3 PCIs were proximally axotomized and several weeks later we
stained PCIs and prepared the tissue for histological evaluation. Two primary classes of
axotomized PCI were identified: those with a very short axon (called permanently
axotomized) and those with an axon that projec ...
The Role of Kv7 in Peripheral Neurons
... functional role of each Kv7 subunits within the peripheral sensory system have not been fully elucidated. In
this thesis, I first investigate the expression pattern of Kv7.5 with immunohistochemical techniques, which
allow me to show that Kv7.5 is localized in the axons of the Remak bundles (unmyeli ...
A tale of two stories: astrocyte regulation of
... astrocytes – the main type of glial cells in the hippocampus and the cortex [16-18] – together
with the discovery of two-way astrocyte-neuron communication [19, 20], suggest an active role
of these cells in modulation of synaptic transmission and information processing in the brain
the neurobiology of nicotine addiction: bridging the gap from
... mesolimbic system. For example, DA neurons of the
VTA express the α2–α7 and β2–β4 subunits34,35, which
can give rise to at least three pharmacologically distinct
nAChR subtypes, of which one is probably a homomeric
α7 receptor. Although less than half of the VTA neurons
express nAChRs that contain α ...
Neural Control - International Continence Society
... this work has been remodeled, reviewed, updated
and extended; and the focus changed to reflect the
altered title so that aspects of neural control of the
bladder are the main emphasis. In addition there is
increased emphasis on the study of the physiology
and pathophysiology of humans. The focus of ...
Behavioural Brain Research Ventral pallidum roles in reward and
... levels of substance P, enkephalins, and iron; heterogeneous cell
types including cholinergic and GABAergic projection neurons;
basal ﬁring rates that are generally slower than dorsal pallidal but
faster than striatal projection neurons), are recognized to distinguish ventral pallidum from other surr ...
Selective stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson`s
... STN neurons receive major input from the cortex and globus pallidus externus (GPe)
and are under influence of the monoaminergic systems: fibers from the SNc, dorsal
raphe nucleus (DRN) and the locus coeruleus (LC) make synaptic contact in the STN
both pre- and post-synaptically releasing respectivel ...
The circadian visual system, 2005
... (Dkhissi-Benyahya et al., 2000) circadian systems estimate the
importance of an acute photic stimulus by effectively “counting” photons. It may be more appropriate to refer to this
activity as “temporal integration” which is a broader term. The
process is demonstrated by the fact that there is a cle ...
Glutamine deficiency in the prefrontal cortex increases depressive
... Glutamine is synthesized by GS in astrocytes and is transported into neurons through the system A transporter–2
(SAT2).23 Glutamine synthesis can be inhibited by MSO,24 and
Gln transport can be blocked with MeAIB.25 If the depressive
behaviours caused by astrocyte ablation are due to lack of
Gln sup ...
Cumming BG, Parker AJ.
... in the vicinity of the receptive field. The results for these four neurons
closely resembled those for the rest of the population.
It would have been possible to manipulate the relative disparity between the foreground and background of the RDS simply by changing
the disparity of the background regi ...
Anatomy & Physiology I
... سیستم عصبی، اعضای داخلی، در رگ های خون معلومات را درباره محیط داخلی تهیه میکند سیاله ها معموال بصورت شعوری در دریافت نمی گرددProprioreciptors
گوش داخلی موقعیت دارد، مفاصل، اوتار، در عضالت موقعیت و حرکت مفاصل و موازنه، طول و کشش عضله، در مورد موقعیت بدنمعلومات تهیه میکند ...
Gastric Effects of Cholecystokinin and Its Interaction with Leptin on
... a brainstem compartment and a gastric compartment. Peptides were
applied only to the gastric compartment and their effects on the NTS
neuronal activity were evaluated.
The test compounds, CCK and leptin, were dissolved in the vehicle
solution. The concentrated solution was applied to the Krebs’ solu ...
The dynamic cytoskeleton: backbone of dendritic spine plasticity
... filaments that are oriented with barbed ends toward the
tip of the filopodium, dendritic filopodia appear to form
from a mixed network of both linear and branched actin
filaments that extend to form a filopodium. Furthermore,
in contrast to other filopodia, they appear to contain
concentrations of A ...
Propagation of tau pathology in Alzheimer`s disease
... been reported in numerous studies, but obtaining a global picture is difficult since different epitopes were
analyzed in various model systems. Analysis of tau in
human CSF found that levels of tau phosphorylated on
T181 are increased in patients with AD compared with
healthy controls . Phosphor ...
Nervous system network models
Network of human nervous system comprises nodes (for example, neurons) that are connected by links (for example, synapses). The connectivity may be viewed anatomically, functionally, or electrophysiologically. These are presented in several Wikipedia articles that include Connectionism (a.k.a. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)), Biological neural network, Artificial neural network (a.k.a. Neural network), Computational neuroscience, as well as in several books by Ascoli, G. A. (2002), Sterratt, D., Graham, B., Gillies, A., & Willshaw, D. (2011), Gerstner, W., & Kistler, W. (2002), and Rumelhart, J. L., McClelland, J. L., and PDP Research Group (1986) among others. The focus of this article is a comprehensive view of modeling a neural network (technically neuronal network based on neuron model). Once an approach based on the perspective and connectivity is chosen, the models are developed at microscopic (ion and neuron), mesoscopic (functional or population), or macroscopic (system) levels. Computational modeling refers to models that are developed using computing tools.