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... resident cells [3, 4]. Neuronal immune-modulations
are conducted within the central nervous system
(CNS). For instance, neural activity of the amygdala and insular cortex as measured by implanted
deep-brain electrodes is not only specific for the
type of immune challenge (T-cell-independent antigen
Effects of Residual Inhibition Phenomenon on Early Auditory Evoked
... “stays” in the peripheral auditory system, but under the dependency of other molecular pathways,
(2) by passing time, tinnitus progressively recruits several anatomical structures in auditory (the
peripheral and central auditory systems) and non-auditory (the limbic system and higher order
brain str ...
Interaction of the Frontal Eye Field and Superior Colliculus for
... around the area activated from the FEF. The empirical question
is whether saccades of such amplitude and direction can still be
evoked from the FEF after that part of the SC has been
We found that SC inactivation substantially altered saccades
evoked by FEF stimulation, and we conclude ...
Leptin Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii
... Abstract—The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was initially regarded as the principal site of leptin action, but there is
increasing evidence for functional leptin receptors in extrahypothalamic sites, including the nucleus tractus solitarii
(NTS). We demonstrated previously that arcuate injection of le ...
Why We Sleep: The Temporal Organization of
... increased sleep (sleep rebound) after sleep deprivation. During
NREM sleep recovery, delta power decreases exponentially with
time, tracking the dissipation of the behavioral sleep debt. REM
sleep is also homeostatically regulated.
has been proposed [1,19,23]: rapid reversibility (as opposed
to hibe ...
Anatomy & Physiology I
... corpuscles will fire rapidly as it
first touches down to let you
know something has landed. If
the pen remains still, they will
stop firing almost right away. The
Merkel’s and Ruffini endings will
continue to fire to let you know
that something is still there.
Propagation of tau pathology in Alzheimer`s disease
... from HEK cells inducibly expressing human tau, rather
than transiently overexpressing tau, revealed soluble extracellular tau but no detectable tau in the exosome fraction
. Exosomes isolated from SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma
cells, infected with a lentivirus to express human GFPtagged tau, also did no ...
Understanding the process of multisensory integration
... reexamine this process. The result, detailed in Chapter 2, was a new model that can
accurately predict a neuron’s multisensory response on a moment-by-moment basis
as it evolves, with only knowledge of its responses to the individual component
... found diabetic control induction and endocrine disorders of Hashimoto’s throiditis,
cancer and neurological disorders such as transverse myelitis, ALS amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis etc. Dr Blaylock has written extensively on the Glutamate
toxicity of Aspartame and Hydroperoxyl Radical damage to glia ...
the Report - The Lasker Foundation
... Practically speaking, this means that visual acuity is reduced despite a normal structural eye
examination due to the presence of at least one amblyopia risk factor early in life. These risk factors
include deprivation (induced by congenital cataract or ptosis, for example), manifest strabismus of ...
Two Procedures for the Establishment of Conditioned Reinforcers
... stimuli other than reinforcing effects.
In as much as the relationship between the two terms, reinforcement and reward, was
discarded by behavior analyst, cognitive psychology commits the categorical mistake (Ryle,
1949; Holth, 2001), of using them synonymously. Cognitive theories view rewards as a
Theta Modulation in the Medial and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortices
... doi:10.1152/jn.01141.2009. Hippocampal neurons show a strong
modulation by theta frequency oscillations. This modulation is
thought to be important not only for temporal encoding and decoding
of information in the hippocampal system, but also for temporal
ordering of neuronal activities on timescale ...
Cholinergic Cells and Pathways
... with projection and augmenting activity as they
pointed out that ACh-sensitive cortical cells
respond to thalamic or peripheral sensory stimulation with repetitive after-discharges and changes
in the EEG. These notions were supported by the
ﬁnding of Frank (Hank) MacIntosh and Paul
Oborin (1953) of ...
Integrative Model of Rumination - Open Research Exeter
... can lead to the development of habitual responding via (1) associative learning and (2) instrumental
learning. They identify three interrelated principles that summarize the development and
performance of habits: (1) habits are cued by context; (2) habit context-response associations are
not mediate ...
Structure and dynamics of the corticothalamic driver pathway in the
... Each moment of life, our brains excel at the complex tasks of acquiring information about the
environment, processing and analyzing those signals, store and retrieve memories, decide on
appropriate behavior and finally coordinate the muscular contractions for an appropriate behavioral
response. Acco ...
Histamine in the Nervous System
... neurons in all central ganglia (150). Histamine induces
excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials (216, 459)
and modulations (109, 811) in a variety of follower
Histamine-containing somata and fibers are widespread in arthropod brains, with the most intense labeling
in the retinal ph ...
- Wiley Online Library
... that orchestrate the contractions of inspiratory and expiratory muscles and regulate airway patency. RTN neurons are
strongly stimulated by hypercapnia and their main known function is to adjust lung ventilation so as to maintain the
stability of arterial P CO2 . This role is especially important du ...
Neuroeconomics is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow a course of action. It studies how economic behavior can shape our understanding of the brain, and how neuroscientific discoveries can constrain and guide models of economics.It combines research methods from neuroscience, experimental and behavioral economics, and cognitive and social psychology. As research into decision-making behavior becomes increasingly computational, it has also incorporated new approaches from theoretical biology, computer science, and mathematics. Neuroeconomics studies decision making, by using a combination of tools from these fields so as to avoid the shortcomings that arise from a single-perspective approach. In mainstream economics, expected utility (EU), and the concept of rational agents, are still being used. Many economic behaviors are not fully explained by these models, such as heuristics and framing.Behavioral economics emerged to account for these anomalies by integrating social, cognitive, and emotional factors in understanding economic decisions. Neuroeconomics adds another layer by using neuroscientific methods in understanding the interplay between economic behavior and neural mechanisms. By using tools from various fields, some scholars claim that neuroeconomics offers a more integrative way of understanding decision making.