A Novel Functionally Distinct Subtype of Striatal Neuropeptide Y
... then incubated in polyclonal antibody against NPY (1:1000; rabbit antineuropeptide Y; ImmunoStar; 22940), SOM (1:1000; rabbit anti-somatostatin; ImmunoStar; 20067), or NOS (1:1000; goat anti-neuronal nitric
oxide synthase; Abcam; Ab1376) diluted in a solution containing 1%
NDS, 1% BSA, and 0.1% Trit ...
Cumming BG, Parker AJ.
... The horizontal and vertical positions of both eyes, and the positions of
the haploscope mirrors, were digitized and sampled at 587 Hz, allowing
vergence angle to be computed on-line. The measured vergence angle
was then used to control the position of the haploscope mirrors in a
feedback loop. The s ...
The Role of Kv7 in Peripheral Neurons
... The Kv7 (KCNQ) channel is a family of voltage-gated potassium channels that is considered to be important
in the regulation of cellular excitability and axonal conduction. Previous studies have shown that peripheral
sensory neurons express Kv7.2, Kv7.3, and Kv7.5 subunits, and that suppression of Kv ...
What the young brain tells the spinal cord: top down modulation of
... The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Department of Neuroscience,
Physiology and Pharmacology at University College London between September 2012
and January 2016. I, Frederick Joseph Schwaller, confirm that the work presented in
this thesis is my own. Where information has been d ...
Cholinergic Cells and Pathways
... release, they needed an ultrasensitive ACh measurement method to prove their point and developed chemiluminescense to meet this need (Israel
and Lesbats, 1981; Israel et al., 1990; see next
section). Today, this method is widely used in
industry as it allows researchers to deal with a
large number o ...
Theta Modulation in the Medial and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortices
... scattered at irregular intervals in a large box. The circular track (76 cm
OD; 56 cm ID) contained four distinct textures, each occupying one
fourth of the track. The circular track was located in the center of a
room with a 275-cm-diameter black curtain reaching from ceiling to
floor, with six prom ...
neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data
... hear them. They affect our body through all sensory systems, but there is not a specific receptor that would capture
the particular motivational properties of rewards. As reward functions cannot be explained by object properties
alone, physics and chemistry are only of limited help, and
we cannot in ...
Understanding the process of multisensory integration
... The operational principles by which the brain integrates signals from various senses
ensure that they are combined in useful ways. For example, the responses of
multisensory neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC), and the
detection/localization behaviors they mediate, are markedly enhanced ...
Structure and dynamics of the corticothalamic driver pathway in the
... appropriate behavior and finally coordinate the muscular contractions for an appropriate behavioral
response. Accordingly, the brain is an equally complex structure and we therefore are still at the
beginning of trying to understand how it works. The standard building elements giving rise to brain
Ethanol Potentiation of Glycine-Induced Responses in Dissociated
... fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects are neurobehavioral disturbances, such as hyperactivity, learning disabilities, depression, and psychosis (Clarren and Smith, 1978).
The mechanisms underlying EtOH effects on the developing
human brain, however, are poorly understood.
According to a very ...
1 - Test Bank
... 25. The primary purpose of the myelin sheath is to ________.
a. insulate the neuron so it can transmit information more efficiently
Correct: The myelin sheath protects and insulates the neuron, and helps to speed up the process
of neural communication.
b. receive messages from outside the neuron and ...
Same Spinal Interneurons Mediate Reflex Actions of Group Ib and
... hindlimb nerves were transected and mounted on stimulating electrodes. Subcutaneous cuff electrodes were used for nerves accessed in
the iliac fossa: quadriceps (Q) and sartorius (Sart) nerves. The remaining nerves including the posterior biceps and semitendinosus
(PBST), anterior biceps and semimem ...
The Locus Ceruleus Responds to Signaling Molecules Obtained
... trk receptors were gifts from Louis Reichardt (University of California,
San Francisco, San Fancisco), and monoclonal antibody M7412 against
chicken p75 was a gift from Hideaki Tanaka (Kumamoto University,
Kumamoto, Japan). Rabbit anti-p75 antibody against the intracellular
domain was from Promega. ...
Prefrontal Projections to the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus
... Most labeled boutons from prefrontal axons were small, but a second class of large boutons was also prominent. This is in contrast to the
homogeneous small TRN terminations from sensory cortices noted previously and in the present study, which are thought to arise
exclusively from layer VI. The two ...
to eat or to sleep? orexin in the regulation of feeding and wakefulness
... agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) are redundant, or that some of these factors lack physiologic relevance in vivo (Flier &
Maratos-Flier 1998, Salton et al 2000). For example, NPY potently increases food
consumption when given centrally but Npy-null mutant mice fa ...
Neural mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep generation
... respiration as well as heart rate indicate a
behaviourally aroused state, whereas high voltage
slow waves in the EEG and significantly reduced
muscle tone along with reduced respiration and heart
rate are characteristic of deep sleep state. On the basis
of co-expression of such behavioural features
Session 230 IOP Measurement and characterization I
... the orbital wall, and IOP was transmitted to the transducer via an
aqueous-filled silicone tube inserted into the anterior chamber. The
implant was large, and the battery required intraperitoneal placement.
We have developed an updated bilateral IOP and ocular perfusion
pressure (OPP) telemetry syst ...
What clinical disorders tell us about the neural
... Fig. 1 (A) Representative record of a 10 horizontal saccade made by a normal subject. In this and subsequent figures, positive
values indicate rightward, upward or clockwise eye rotations from the subject’s viewpoint. Position (blue) and velocity (red) records
are shown. (B) Simulated 10 horizonta ...
The Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) in Parkinson`s Disease
... • The initial enthusiasm for PPN DBS has been
somewhat tempered by mixed clinical outcomes
in subsequent studies, although some patients
exhibit clear benefit for axial symptoms.
• Almost all of the studies have been open label
and have not had rigidly defined inclusion
• Standardiz ...
Maxillary palp glomeruli and ipsilateral projections in the antennal
... expressed a Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent protein to demonstrate that the glomerular response is dependent on the
odourant receptor expressed by a receptor neuron. These
studies suggest a strong correlation between sensory neuron and projection neuron activity. Recently, Wilson et al
(2004) employed a ...
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. Thus, the neuron ""mirrors"" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. Such neurons have been directly observed in primate species. Birds have been shown to have imitative resonance behaviors and neurological evidence suggests the presence of some form of mirroring system. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex.The function of the mirror system is a subject of much speculation. Many researchers in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology consider that this system provides the physiological mechanism for the perception/action coupling (see the common coding theory). They argue that mirror neurons may be important for understanding the actions of other people, and for learning new skills by imitation. Some researchers also speculate that mirror systems may simulate observed actions, and thus contribute to theory of mind skills, while others relate mirror neurons to language abilities. Neuroscientists such as Marco Iacoboni (UCLA) have argued that mirror neuron systems in the human brain help us understand the actions and intentions of other people. In a study published in March 2005 Iacoboni and his colleagues reported that mirror neurons could discern if another person who was picking up a cup of tea planned to drink from it or clear it from the table. In addition, Iacoboni has argued that mirror neurons are the neural basis of the human capacity for emotions such as empathy.It has also been proposed that problems with the mirror neuron system may underlie cognitive disorders, particularly autism. However the connection between mirror neuron dysfunction and autism is tentative and it remains to be seen how mirror neurons may be related to many of the important characteristics of autism.Despite the excitement generated by these findings, to date, no widely accepted neural or computational models have been put forward to describe how mirror neuron activity supports cognitive functions such as imitation. There are neuroscientists who caution that the claims being made for the role of mirror neurons are not supported by adequate research.