A Novel Functionally Distinct Subtype of Striatal Neuropeptide Y
... then incubated in polyclonal antibody against NPY (1:1000; rabbit antineuropeptide Y; ImmunoStar; 22940), SOM (1:1000; rabbit anti-somatostatin; ImmunoStar; 20067), or NOS (1:1000; goat anti-neuronal nitric
oxide synthase; Abcam; Ab1376) diluted in a solution containing 1%
NDS, 1% BSA, and 0.1% Trit ...
Effects of Residual Inhibition Phenomenon on Early Auditory Evoked
... It could be possible (with no certainty) that the neural mechanisms which are involved in RI
phenomenon, are similar to (or overlap with) those that cause generation of tinnitus (Roberts,
2007). By accepting aforesaid hypothesis, understanding neural mechanisms involved in RI can
create a new horizo ...
NEURAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING THE LEARNING
... oldest and most straightforward paradigms to study fear-related processes (Domjan,
2005; LeDoux, 1998; Pavlov, 1927). It is considered a model system to investigate the
neurobiological mechanisms of learning (Fanselow & Ledoux, 1999; Helmstetter &
Bellgowan, 1993; Kim & Jung, 2006; Maren, 2001). Dur ...
A tale of two stories: astrocyte regulation of
... experiments [30-32, 49], presents several advantages. First, it allows us to characterize the
effect of astrocytic glutamate on short-term synaptic plasticity in general, that is, independently
of the nature of synaptic inputs. Second, it uses Ca2+ signals to merely trigger glutamate
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Reelin Signaling in the Adult
... intact brain and further emphasize that extracellular proteolysis of Reelin by tPA
and other yet-to-be identified proteases is important to consider when trying to
understand how altered Reelin processing and/or expression contribute to
cognitive impairments associated with disease states. In Chapte ...
Neurophysiology - American Physiological Society
... C. Cerebrovascular System
NEU 30. Describe the local factors affecting brain blood flow and contrast their effectiveness
with that of autonomic regulation of cerebral blood flow. Understand the role of blood flow in
relation to fMRI.
NEU 31. Describe cerebrovascular disorders (stroke, hemorrhage, an ...
Thomas C. Südhof - Nobel Lecture Slides
... 1. Why does the Syt1 KO have a phenotype if Syt2 and
Syt9 can compensate?
2. Why doesn’t Syt7 function in release if it is so similar to
other ‘blue’ synaptotagmins?
Interaction of the Frontal Eye Field and Superior Colliculus for
... the hypothesis that two parallel pathways may control saccades
to visual targets (Keating and Gooley 1988a,b; Keating et al.
1983; Schiller 1977; Schiller and Chou 1998; Schiller et al.
1980, 1987). One pathway goes directly from the FEF to the
brain stem premotor circuitry, where saccades are ultim ...
Anatomy & Physiology I
... the pen remains still, they will
stop firing almost right away. The
Merkel’s and Ruffini endings will
continue to fire to let you know
that something is still there.
Versican Expression During Embryonic Development in the Mouse
... from E13.5 and older embryos, which were processed separately due to their larger size. For
E13.5 and later embryos, the face and snout was dissected from the head and removed prior to
processing. Tissues from six adult mice were collected immediately following CO2 euthanasia
and included a section ...
A decade of the anaphase-promoting complex in the nervous system
... Kramer et al. 2000). Characterization of the functions
and regulation of Cdh1–APC and Cdc20–APC in dividing
cells has provided invaluable clues for our understanding
of the novel functions and mechanisms of the anaphasepromoting complex in the nervous system.
Identification of functions of the anaph ...
Mitochondrial support of persistent presynaptic vesicle mobilization
... Pathak et al., 2015; Chavan et al., 2015). This finding raised the question of whether synapses without presynaptic mitochondria can sustain robust and enduring changes in efficacy. To address this
question, we analyzed hippocampal synapses that had undergone theta-burst stimulation (TBS) to
Highwire Regulates Guidance of Sister Axons in the
... an ordered differentiation process into three types of neurons:
␣/␤ neurons, ␣⬘/␤⬘ neurons, and ␥ neurons (Lee et al., 1999). The
cell bodies of these MB neurons are located in the posterior of the
brain and project their axons to the anterior region through an
axon tract called the peduncle (Fig. 1 ...
Emotional experiences of tension and suspense: psychological
... experiences evoked by music) and suspense evoked by a literary text. First, a behavioral study
explored the role of different tonal and expressive structural features of a musical piece
(harmony, melody, outer voices, dynamics, and expressive timing) as a mediator of musical
tension. Results of this ...
Why We Sleep: The Temporal Organization of
... slow-wave sleep. Slow waves reﬂect synchronization of periods
of neuronal depolarization/high ﬁring (up-phase) followed by
periods of hyperpolarization (down phase) within large areas of
the cortex. Slow-wave sleep intensity is often measured by EEG
power in the delta frequency range.
REM sleep is a ...
Distinct Roles for Somatically and Dendritically Synthesized Brain
... The dendritic tree of a typical projection neuron in the mammalian brain contains thousands of dendritic spines, which serve as
the postsynaptic sites for the vast majority of excitatory synapses
(Harris, 1999). Dendritic spines are highly dynamic structures
that undergo changes in size, shape, and ...
Neural mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep generation
... exclusively in conjunction with muscle atonia, which
indicates that electrophysiological parameters can be
used to characterize different stages of sleep 35 .
Therefore, Blumberg et al33 have contended that “the
pre-sleep theory, at least in its present form, does not
accurately reflect the phenomen ...
Understanding the process of multisensory integration
... reexamine this process. The result, detailed in Chapter 2, was a new model that can
accurately predict a neuron’s multisensory response on a moment-by-moment basis
as it evolves, with only knowledge of its responses to the individual component
Curriculum Vitae - Laureate Institute for Brain Research
... I am collaborating with several investigators at UCSD and other institutions to study the neural
basis of psychiatric disorders. Specifically, I am working with Drs. Susan Tapert and Gerhard Schulteis on
NIDA supported P-20 Center Grant to examine the role of interoception for drug addiction.
Histamine in the Nervous System
... detella pertussis toxin sensitization (Bphs), which controls both histamine-mediated autoimmune T cell and
vascular responses after pertussis toxin sensitization. Histamine H1R- and H2R-deficient mice have an imbalance in
Th1/Th2 cell function (318, 564) and a lower susceptibility
to develop autoimm ...
stimulant treatment history predicts frontal-striatal
... As I am writing this chapter, the Dutch public broadcasting association KRO-‐
NCRV is airing its second episode in a special series about ‘the ADHD-‐epidemic’.
Within one week of announcing the making of this series earlier this year, ...
Might the olfactory bulb be an origin of olfactory auras in focal
... (Llik and Pazarli, 2015).
Olfactory auras are the least frequent type of sensory aura, comprising a wide estimate of 0.9% to
16% of auras of all types (Lennox and Cobb, 1933;
Acharya et al., 1998; Chen et al., 2003, 2007). They are
associated with paroxysmal foci, as identiﬁed by preoperative and in ...
Orbital position dependency is different for the gain of externally and
... the elastic force of the extraocular muscles and
tendons which tend to pull the eyeball back to the
primary position near straight ahead . The elastic
force assists centripetal saccades and opposes centrifugal saccades. The neuronal signal driving the eye
muscles must compensate for the effect of ...
1 - Test Bank
... 39. Recent evidence suggests that glial cells and astrocytes may play an important role in
a. learning and memory
b. endocrine functioning
c. maturation and aging
d. growth and metabolic regulation
Page Reference: 43
Topic: Neurons: The Messengers
Holonomic brain theory
The holonomic brain theory, developed by neuroscientist Karl Pribram initially in collaboration with physicist David Bohm, is a model of human cognition that describes the brain as a holographic storage network. Pribram suggests these processes involve electric oscillations in the brain's fine-fibered dendritic webs, which are different from the more commonly known action potentials involving axons and synapses. These oscillations are waves and create wave interference patterns in which memory is encoded naturally, and the waves may be analyzed by a Fourier transform. Gabor, Pribram and others noted the similarities between these brain processes and the storage of information in a hologram, which can also be analyzed with a Fourier transform. In a hologram, any part of the hologram with sufficient size contains the whole of the stored information. In this theory, a piece of a long-term memory is similarly distributed over a dendritic arbor so that each part of the dendritic network contains all the information stored over the entire network. This model allows for important aspects of human consciousness, including the fast associative memory that allows for connections between different pieces of stored information and the non-locality of memory storage (a specific memory is not stored in a specific location, i.e. a certain neuron).