THE SUBFORNICAL ORGAN AND AREA POSTREMA MEDIATE
... tissue, once thought of as solely a storage depot for excess triglycerides, also serves as an
endocrine organ which plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, secreting adipokines
that control feeding and energy metabolism. Although a certain degree of fat storage is
normal, the expansion of adipo ...
A Novel Functionally Distinct Subtype of Striatal Neuropeptide Y
... different from those of previously described NPY-containing, plateau-depolarization low-threshold spike (NPY–PLTS) interneurons.
The novel NPY interneuron type (NPY–neurogliaform) differed from previously described NPY–PLTS interneurons by exhibiting a
significantly lower input resistance and hyperp ...
Structure and dynamics of the corticothalamic driver pathway in the
... processes is the rodent whisker system. Rodents can solve highly complicated tasks with their
whiskers alone, distributed receptors at the follicles require spatial integration and rhythmic
movements suggest temporal processing components.
The posterior group nucleus of the thalamus (PO) is in a key ...
Mechanisms of Leptin Action and Leptin Resistance
... and leptin-deﬁcient ob/ob animals (3). The
function of short-form LRs is less clear, although proposed roles include the transport
of leptin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
and the production of circulating LR extracellular domain to complex with leptin (10, 11).
Many of the effects of leptin r ...
Understanding the process of multisensory integration
... Understanding the principles by which the brain combines information from different
senses provides us with insight into the computational strategies used to maximize
their utility. Prior studies of the superior colliculus (SC) neuron as a model suggest
that the relative timing with which sensory cu ...
neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data
... 853–951, 2015. Published June 24, 2015; doi:10.1152/physrev.00023.2014.—Rewards are crucial objects that induce learning, approach behavior, choices, and emotions. Whereas emotions are difficult to investigate in animals, the learning function is
mediated by neuronal reward prediction error signals ...
The dynamic cytoskeleton: backbone of dendritic spine plasticity
... Organisms must be able to modify their synaptic connections during development and in adulthood. This synaptic plasticity is essential for the refinement of connections
during the construction of a functional nervous system as
well as for learning and memory throughout life. When
processes involved ...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Reelin Signaling in the Adult
... intact brain and further emphasize that extracellular proteolysis of Reelin by tPA
and other yet-to-be identified proteases is important to consider when trying to
understand how altered Reelin processing and/or expression contribute to
cognitive impairments associated with disease states. In Chapte ...
Memantine is a clinically well tolerated N-methyl-D
... glycine (Parsons et al., 1993). Thus, antagonism via
interactions at the glycineB site is unlikely. However, it
is possible that memantine increases the affinity of
glycine at NMDA receptors as reflected in a potentiation of NMDA currents at positive potentials by low
concentrations of memantine (Wa ...
Independent Functions of Slit–Robo Repulsion and Netrin– Frazzled
... Arrows represent longitudinal breaks, arrowheads represent thinning of commissures, feathered arrowheads represent condensed/fused commissures, and asterisks represent segments with recrossing longitudinal bundles. Genotypes are listed on top,
and antibodies are listed on the left. A–D, Stage 16 emb ...
Histamine in the Nervous System
... other biogenic amines, is determined by the bioavailability of the precursor; histidine is taken up into the cerebrospinal fluid and neurons through L-amino acid transporters (Fig. 2). HDC activity can be inhibited by ␣-fluoromethylhistidine (␣-FMH), a suicide substrate leading
to a marked depressio ...
The Locus Ceruleus Responds to Signaling Molecules Obtained
... point, and plotted as a function of time after intraocular injection.
Quantitative ultrastructural autoradiography. Sections through the optic tectum and the LoC were analyzed by ultrastructural autoradiography
using protocols described previously (von Bartheld et al., 1996a; Butowt
and von Bartheld ...
Same Spinal Interneurons Mediate Reflex Actions of Group Ib and
... from the Q, GS, Pl, and FDL nerves that are the main source of actions
of Ib afferents on motoneurons (Eccles et al. 1957); they were located
in the L5 and L6 segments. Three of the intracellularly recorded and
five of the extracellularly recorded interneurons were antidromically
activated from the ...
Spinal sympathetic interneurons: Their identification and roles after
... great extent because they are difﬁcult to identify. Therefore, this chapter begins with descriptions of both
neurophysiological and neuroanatomical criteria for identifying spinal sympathetic interneurons, and it
discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. Spinal sympathetic interneurons als ...
Highwire Regulates Guidance of Sister Axons in the
... 70), whereas all the examined WT MBs were normal (n ⫽ 85).
This phenotype is also present in a second, genetically independent highwire allele, hiwND8, an EMS allele with a premature stop
codon (see Fig. 7), but the phenotype is less severe (66% penetrance, n ⫽ 143). The hypomorphic nature of hiwND8 ...
Distinct Roles for Somatically and Dendritically Synthesized Brain
... The dendritic tree of a typical projection neuron in the mammalian brain contains thousands of dendritic spines, which serve as
the postsynaptic sites for the vast majority of excitatory synapses
(Harris, 1999). Dendritic spines are highly dynamic structures
that undergo changes in size, shape, and ...
Maxillary palp glomeruli and ipsilateral projections in the antennal
... antibody. Golgi-impregnations show that the sensory projections from antennal/labial nerve innervate these glomeruli. The Golgi technique that impregnates neurons
was found to stain 35 of the 43 known glomeruli in the
present study (listed in table 1). A powerful technique
utilizing expression of DO ...
Mechanisms of axon degeneration: From development to disease
... 1996; Mason and Gregory, 1984). Although no corresponding
in vivo imaging data have been reported yet for this synapse
elimination process on a larger terminal arborization scale than
that of short side-branches to individual neuromuscular
junctions, it seems likely that it will again involve an axo ...
The role of the basal ganglia in reinforcement learning
... addressed. One of the major issues that still needs to be investigated in detail is: what
are the other neural correlates for reinforcement learning besides the dopaminergic
An important neuromodulator subpopulation is the cholinergic neurons of the
striatum. Consistent with the classical ...
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... preparations (Delcomyn, 1980) in many cases parametric features
of these motor programs are not identical to those observed
under physiological conditions. Under normal circumstances
CPGs receive input from peripheral receptors [for review, see
Pearson and Ramirez (1997); Rossignol et al. (1998); mo ...
Orexin/Hypocretin: A Neuropeptide at the Interface of Sleep, Energy
... A. Identification of orexin (Hypocretin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Orexin receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Or ...
If so, is trkB mRNA in SNB motor neurons
... If so, do glutamatergic terminals or the glutamatergic post- synaptic region
contain either BDNF or trkB receptor proteins?
BDNF mRNA (black silver grains) in SNB (A) and RDLN (B) motoneurons from a sham GDX
rat detected with 35S-labeled cRNA probes. SNB and RDLN motoneurons were counterstained
Neurotoxicity and Mechanism of Toluene Abuse
... Neurotoxicity and Mechanism of Toluene Abuse
ments using human subjects are difficult to compare,
since they are often methodologically distinct and
limited by ethical and safety concerns. In addition, this
excitatory-depressive duality correlates to some degree
with clinical experience and reports ...
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
... holding the functioning neurons together,
protecting them, and regulating neuron
function. Glia cells vary in shape and size.
Can you name the three main types of support
cells in the central nervous system and provide
a short description of each?
Test Bank 1
... 2. When young children have half their brain removed, ________.
a. they retain most of their normal abilities
b. it ultimately leads to their death
c. the missing half is eventually regenerated
d. it leads to permanent, severe disabilities
Page Reference: 41
Topic: Introducti ...
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as in a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another ""target"" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on other synapses. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps to convert them. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown but more than 100 chemical messengers have been identified.