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Transcript
The Nervous System
Anatomy and Physiology Flash Cards
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Directions
The first slide asks a question.
The second slide answers the question.
Use these slides like flash cards to test
your core knowledge.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the divisions of the nervous
system.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
• CNS (central nervous system)
• PNS (peripheral nervous system)
• ANS (autonomic nervous system)
• Somatic (voluntary)
• Sympathetic
• Parasympathetic
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the organs of the nervous system.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
•
•
•
•
•
Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerves
Specialized sense organs
Microscopic sense organs
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is the central nervous system (CNS)
composed of?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
The brain and spinal cord
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is the peripheral nervous system
(PNS) composed of?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
The nerves that extend to outlying parts of
the body.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Describe the autonomic nervous system
(ANS).
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous
system (PNS) that consists of
structures that regulate the body’s
automatic or involuntary functions
(heart rate, stomach and intestinal
contractions, and gland secretions)
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the two types of cells found in the
nervous system.
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Answer
1. Neurons
2. Glia
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Neurons are nerve cells and they consist
of three parts. What are the three parts
of a neuron?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
1. The main part is called the cell body.
2. One or more branching projections are
called dendrites.
3. One elongated projection is called the
axon.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What are the functions of each part of the
neuron?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
• Dendrites conducts impulses to the cell
body.
• Cell body is the main part.
• Axon conducts impulses away from the cell
body.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Axons are either myelinated or
unmyelinated. What is myelin?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Myelin is a white fatty substance formed
by Schwann cells in the PNS and
oligodendrocytes in the CNS.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The indentations between Schwann cells
in the PNS are called ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Nodes of Ranvier
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The outer cell membrane of a Schwann
cell is called ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Neurilemma
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Glia is one of the two types of cells in the nervous
system. Glia have several functions including
holding the functioning neurons together,
protecting them, and regulating neuron
function. Glia cells vary in shape and size.
Can you name the three main types of support
cells in the central nervous system and provide
a short description of each?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
1.
Astrocytes: Star shaped cells with threadlike branches,
anchor blood vessels to neurons, and support the blood
brain barrier.
2.
Microglia: Usually remain stationary until inflammation or
deterioration occurs, then they enlarge and begin the
process of phagocytosis.
3.
Oligodendrocytes: Produce the myelin sheath that wraps
nerve fibers in the CNS.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the three nerve coverings and what
each covers.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
1. Endoneurium: Surrounds the
individual fibers within a nerve.
2. Perineurium: Surrounds a group
(fascicle) of nerve fibers.
3. Epineurium: Surrounds the entire
nerve.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
True or False?
Only neurons can provide the rapid
communication between cells that is
necessary for maintaining life.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
True
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Another term for nerve impulse is ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Action potential
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
A specialized type of neuron pathway is
called a ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Reflex arc
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The simplest kind of reflex arc is ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Two-neuron reflex arc
(sensory neuron and motor neuron)
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What neurons are included in a threeneuron reflex arc?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
1. Sensory neurons
2. Interneurons
3. Motor neurons
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The “knee jerk” or patella reflex is an
example of a ______ neuron reflex.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Two
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Receptors are at the beginning of the
dendrites of ______ neurons.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Sensory
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Describe the term ganglion.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
A group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is the definition of a nerve impulse?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
A self-propagating wave of electrical
disturbance that travels along the
surface of a neuron membrane.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The microscopic space that separates the
axon ending of one neuron from the
dendrites of the next neuron is called a
______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Synapse
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is saltatory conduction?
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Answer
As the traveling nerve impulse comes in
contact with myelin sections, it jumps
over the myelin to the indentations
called Nodes of Ranvier.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
When the traveling impulse jumps from
one neuron to the next it crosses over
a ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Synapse
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name a type of three-neuron reflex arc?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Withdrawal reflex
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What are the three structures that make
up a synapse?
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Answer
1. Synaptic Knob
2. Synaptic Cleft
3. Plasma membrane of the
postsynaptic neuron
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The synaptic knob contains small sacs or
vesicles. Each sac or vesicles
contains a chemical compound called
______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Neurotransmitters
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is a neurotransmitter?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Chemicals used by neurons to
communicate. Released by the
presynaptic neurons to assist,
stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic
neurons. At least thirty different
compounds have been identified as
neurotransmitters.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Detail the process of a neurotransmitter
release through to its termination.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
•
The vesicles of the synaptic knob of a preganglionic
neuron’s axon release the neurotransmitter. The
neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft.
•
The neurotransmitter is received by the receptor site on the
cell membrane of the postsynaptic neuron’s dendrites.
•
What is not used or needed will diffuse back into the
synaptic knob or will be absorbed by the body.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is acetylcholine?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
A neurotransmitter abbreviated as ACH
and released at the neuromuscular
junction as well as all autonomic
ganglia.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Describe catecholamines and name three
types of this neurotransmitter.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
•
•
Catecholamines play a role in sleep,
motor function, mood and pleasure
recognition.
Three catecholamines are:
1. Norepinephrine
2. Serotonin
3. Dopamine
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name two morphine-like neurotransmitters.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
1. Endorphins
2. Enkephalins
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What neurotransmitters ay be released in
response to pain or injury?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Endorphins and enkephalins
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The central nervous system has two main
structures; the brain and the spinal cord.
In addition to the brain being protected
by the cranial cavity and the spinal cord
surrounded in the spinal cavity by the
vertebral column for its protection, both
are covered by protective membranes
called ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Meninges
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the divisions of the brainstem from
inferior to superior.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
• Medulla Oblongata
• Pons
• Midbrain
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
From the brain stem, moving superiorly,
name the next parts of the brain.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
•
•
•
Diencephalon
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Which part of the diencephalon controls
the hormone secretion for the pituitary
gland?
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Answer
Hypothalamus
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is the second largest part of the
human brain?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Cerebellum
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is the name of the largest part of the
brain?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Cerebrum
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Which part of the brain helps control
muscle contractions by producing
coordinated movements so we can
move smoothly and maintain our
balance with normal posture?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Cerebellum
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the four lobes of the cerebrum.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
1.
2.
3.
4.
Frontal
Temporal
Parietal
Occipital
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is the name of the structure that
separates and allows the brain
hemispheres to communicate?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Corpus collosum
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Which lobe of the cerebrum controls
movement?
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Answer
Frontal lobe
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the shallow grooves in the cerebrum.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Sulci—grooves
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Where is the motor speech area called
Broca’s area located?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Frontal lobe
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Which part of the brainstem contains the
vital centers?
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Answer
Medulla oblongata
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the part of the brain responsible for
regulating sleep cycle, water balance,
and that produces antidiuretic hormone
(ADH).
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Hypothalamus
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The spinal cord has inner and outer parts.
Which part is composed of white
matter made up of bundles of axons
called tracts?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
The outer part of the spinal cord.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is CSF?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Cerebrospinal fluid—a clear fluid that
nourishes and protects the brain and
spinal cord as well as fills the
ventricles in the brain.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the three layers of the tough, fluidcontaining membranes known as
meninges that protect the brain and
spinal cord, from superficial to deep.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
1. Dura mater (tough mother)
2. Arachnoid (cobweb-like)
3. Pia mater (soft mother)
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
The structure associated with the
ventricles and contributes to the
formation of CSF is ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Choroid plexus
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
How many pair of cranial nerves are in
the human body?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Twelve pair
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the cranial nerves.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
I. Olfactory
II. Optic
III. Oculomotor
IV. Trochlear
V. Trigeminal
VI. Abducens
VII. Facial
VIII. Vestibulocochlear
IX. Glossopharyngeal
X. Vagus
XI. Accessory
XII. Hypoglossal
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
How many pairs of spinal nerves are in
the human body?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Thirty-one pairs
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Skin surface areas supplied by a single
spinal nerve are called ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Dermatomes
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Question
What are the paths of the white matter
tracts?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
•
Sensory tracts=
Peripheral nerves to the brain
•
Motor tracts=
Brain to peripheral nerves
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Our spinal nerves conduct impulses
necessary for us to experience
sensations as well as voluntary
movements, explaining their structure of
the dendrites of sensory neurons and
the ______ of ______.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Axons of motor neurons
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is known as the “fight or flight”
system?
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Answer
Sympathetic or thoracolumbar system
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What are the three types of tissues the
ANS controls?
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Answer
1. Cardiac
2. Smooth
3. Glandular (epithelial)
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Name the neurotransmitter released by
sympathetic postganglionic axons.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Norepinephrine
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Which branch of the ANS dominates
control of visceral effectors in normal
everyday conditions?
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Answer
Parasympathetic system
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
Where will you find a sensory cell body?
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Answer
In the dorsal horn or posterior root ganglion.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What are cholinergic fibers?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Sympathetic pre and post ganglionic axons
and the parasympathetic postganglionic
axon classify as cholinergic fibers
because they release ACH from their
terminals at the synapse.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What fibers are considered adrenergic?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
Only the axon of a sympathetic
postganglionic neuron releases the
neurotransmitter norepinephrine in
sympathetic response to visceral
receptors.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is another name for the limbic system?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
The emotional brain
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Question
What is the autonomic nervous system’s
job as a whole?
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals
Answer
To regulate the body’s automatic functions
that will bring about or restore
homeostasis.
Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals