Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings
... participants judged low pitches, but an equivalent semantic congruity effect (i.e., time required to judge which of two stimuli is
more extreme along a dimension decreases when the judgment is
congruent with that end of the dimension; Banks, 1977) for judgments of low pitches did not occur.
Yoo, Lee ...
thesis - ETDA
... excessive excitatory input, perhaps too little inhibitory input is given, or a combination of
both. Balance between excitation and inhibition is a crucial role the basal ganglia exerts
on the motor cortex through the thalamus, which itself influences the cortex in an
excitatory manner. Inhibition of ...
NEURAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING THE LEARNING
... discriminative control over the UCR (Baxter, 1966; Kimmel, 1967; Knight et al., 2010;
Marcos & Redondo, 1999). Others have suggested that conscious expectations modify
UCR expression (Dunsmoor et al., 2008; Knight et al., 2010; Rust, 1976). For example,
greater UCR diminution has been observed when ...
Interaction of the Frontal Eye Field and Superior Colliculus for
... the hypothesis that two parallel pathways may control saccades
to visual targets (Keating and Gooley 1988a,b; Keating et al.
1983; Schiller 1977; Schiller and Chou 1998; Schiller et al.
1980, 1987). One pathway goes directly from the FEF to the
brain stem premotor circuitry, where saccades are ultim ...
neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data
... is to make us eat, drink, and mate. Species with brains that
allow them to get better rewards will win in evolution. This
is what our brain does, acquire rewards, and do it in the best
possible way. It may well be the reason why brains have
evolved. Brains allow multicellular organisms to move
rtf - MIT Media Lab
... knowledge. Josh Tenenbaum and colleagues have demonstrated techniques for
learning schemas from data , but it is still not clear how many schemas
there are, and how people retrieve them to solve problems, and when one
schema ends and the other begins. Clearly, the causal relationships of a
event str ...
Emotional experiences of tension and suspense: psychological
... (such as dynamics). A subsequent study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
investigated neural correlates of tension experiences during music listening. The subjective
experience of felt musical tension was found to be related to neural activations in areas
associated with affective p ...
... are administered with feed to Sprague-Dawley rats from 8 weeks of age throughout the
life span. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this second study is to better quantify the
carcinogenic risk of APM, beginning treatment during fetal life. METHODS: We studied
groups of 70-95 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a ...
Anatomy & Physiology I
... the pen remains still, they will
stop firing almost right away. The
Merkel’s and Ruffini endings will
continue to fire to let you know
that something is still there.
Descending motor pathways and the spinal
... though unilateral contraction of the biventer cervicis, complexus and splenius muscles draws the
head dorsally and laterally. Examples of hypaxial
neck muscles are the prevertebral muscles (longus
capitis, rectus capitis ventralis and rectus capitis
lateralis), the sterno- and cleidomastoid muscles
Homologous Neurons and their Locomotor Functions in Nudibranch
... during the course of evolution than the periphery (Bramble and Wake, 1985; Wainwright
and Lauder, 1986; Lauder and Shaffer, 1988; Sanderson, 1988; Goslow et al., 1989;
Wainwright, 1989; Wainwright et al., 1989; Kavanau, 1990; Arbas et al., 1991; Edwards
and Palka, 1991; Paul, 1991; Katz and Tazaki, ...
Primary- and Secondary-Like Jaw-Muscle Spindle Afferents Have
... coursed dorsomedially toward the trigeminal motor nucleus
(Vmo). Either within or slightly dorsal to the trigeminal
motor nucleus these axons bifurcated with one branch coursing rostrally into the tract of the mesencephalic trigeminal
nucleus and the other turning caudally to enter the tract of
Gastric Effects of Cholecystokinin and Its Interaction with Leptin on
... low thoracic level. For all eight units that responded to peptides
before vagal discontinuation, gastric effects were abolished after the
vagus was cut off. Also, at the completion of each experiment, colored
solution was applied to one compartment to make sure that there
was no leakage to the other ...
Selective stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson`s
... Thus the classical concept is changed; there are two main input structures of the basal
ganglia: striatum and STN. Several anatomical and electrophysiological studies have
been performed on the monosynaptic cortico-subthalamic (‘hyperdirect’) pathway, but
its functional role within the cortico-basal ...
ATLAS OF FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY
... color coding is included after the list of illustrations.)
Much of the subject matter’s difficulty is terminology — complex, difficult to spell, sometimes inconsistent, with a Latin
base, and sometimes with names of individuals (used often by neurologists, neurosurgeons, and neuroradiologists). A
PDF - Bentham Open
... Converging lines of research indicate that healthy
emotion regulation relies upon the PFC [19, 20, 23-25], and
that anxiety disorders may be linked to insufficient
regulatory control from the PFC. Further, PFC dysregulation
is associated with increased amygdala reactivity [26-31] and
an exaggerated ...
Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes
... been revealed. Another neuroimaging study investigated imagined locomotion and the results show an overlap with real locomotion (la Fougère et al., 2010). However, imagined locomotion
was associated with early visual activation and this suggests that
participants used a visual rather than vestibular ...
Recasting the Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement System
... temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex with pursuit-related motor regions of the cerebellum (Fig. 1A), as
detailed in several previous reviews (Ilg 1997; Keller and
Heinen 1991; Lisberger et al. 1987). The middle temporal
(MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) areas in the
superior tempo ...
... suggest an important role of the cerebellum. However, nearly all these studies are
based on the analysis of apriori selected regions of interest (known as ROI
approaches). Recent studies, using more global approaches, found that ADHD
structural abnormalities were not limited to fronto-striatal-cereb ...
Kazumi TAKAHASHI†*, Jian-Sheng LIN† and Kazuya - HAL
... drowsy state (D) was defined as the first 3-s period from the onset of EEG synchronization (deactivation) during
the transition from W to SWS. SWS was defined by sustained high-voltage slow waves in the EEG and lowered
EMG activity. In the present study, D and SWS corresponded, respectively, to ligh ...
Proopiomelanocortin Neurons in Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Are
... The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) receives dense terminations from cranial visceral afferents, including those from the gastrointestinal
(GI) system. Although the NTS integrates peripheral satiety signals and relays this signal to central feeding centers, little is known about
which NTS neurons a ...
The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor George
... definitional. The word metaphor was defined as a novel or poetic linguistic expression
where one or more words for a concept are used outside of its normal conventional
meaning to express a similar concept. But such issues are not matters for definitions; they
are empirical questions. As a cognitive ...
Embodied language processing
Embodied cognition occurs when an organism’s sensorimotor capacities (ability of the body to respond to its senses with movement), body and environment play an important role in thinking. The way in which a person’s body and their surroundings interacts also allows for specific brain functions to develop and in the future to be able to act. This means that not only does the mind influence the body’s movements, but the body also influences the abilities of the mind. There are three generalizations that are assumed to be true relating to embodied cognition. A person's motor system (that controls movement of the body) is activated when (1) they observe manipulable objects, (2) process action verbs, and (3) observe another individual's movements.In order to create movement of the body, a person usually thinks (or the brain subconsciously functions) about the movement it would like to accomplish. Embodied language processing asserts that there can also be an opposite influence. This means that moving your body in a certain way will impact how you comprehend, as well as process, language – whether it is an individual word or a complete phrase or sentence. Embodied language processing suggests that the brain resources that are used for perception, action, and emotion are also used during language comprehension. Studies have found that participants are faster at comprehending a sentence when the picture that goes along with it matches the actions described in the sentence. Action and language about action have been found to be connected because the areas of the brain that control them overlap It has been found that action can influence how a person understands a word, phrase, or sentence, but language can also impact a person's actions.