ORAL UPF/ TESI DOCT Nicotine addiction phenotypes in a BAC transgenic mouse
... The CHRNA5/A3/B4 genomic cluster encodes for the alpha5, alpha3 and beta4
subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Human genetic studies have
revealed a significant association of variants in this genomic region with nicotine
dependence. However, the mechanisms through which overe ...
Neuro-Bio-Behavioral Mechanisms of Placebo and Nocebo
... action of drugs as well as “other forces at play and
the circumstances surrounding their administration”
contribute to the overall treatment effect (Wolf, 1950).
Empirical data revealed that placebo effects that
endow inert agents with potency or modify the treatment effects of active pharmacologica ...
Emotional experiences of tension and suspense: psychological
... the close connection between musical tension and music-evoked emotion. A methodologically
similar fMRI study investigating neural correlates of suspense evoked by a literary text found
suspenseful text segments to be associated with activity in medial prefrontal, inferior frontal,
as well as posteri ...
Previous results from our laboratory have shown that administration
... There are many people I want to thank for helping me through this process and
making this dissertation possible. First I want to thank my advisor Dr. Jaime DiazGranados for his help and support throughout my graduate career. Without his
willingness to indulge my drive to try new methods, and his fai ...
Gastric Effects of Cholecystokinin and Its Interaction with Leptin on
... applied only to the gastric compartment and their effects on the NTS
neuronal activity were evaluated.
The test compounds, CCK and leptin, were dissolved in the vehicle
solution. The concentrated solution was applied to the Krebs’ solution in the gastric compartment. The final drug concentration in ...
Early Thiamine Deficiency
... positives and false negatives. Recent studies have shifted away from the inhibitor
and examined supposed Leigh’s disease patients for genetic defects including those
with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. Leigh’s disease may represent one variation
of the inherited ataxias. These studies and their ra ...
... BACKGROUND: In a previous study conducted at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research
Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation (CMCRC/ERF), we demonstrated for the
first time that aspartame (APM) is a multipotent carcinogenic agent when various doses
are administered with feed to Sprague-Dawley rats fr ...
Glutamine deficiency in the prefrontal cortex increases depressive
... Background: The brain levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) are partially regulated through the Glu–Gln cycle. Astrocytes play
a role in regulating the Glu–Gln cycle, and loss of astrocytes has been associated with depressive disorders. We hypothesized that
levels of Glu and Gln would be aff ...
Extracellular Glutamate, Glutamine, and GABA in the Hippocampus
... depending on whether it originates in one hemisphere or involves the cortex bilaterally,
respectively. Epilepsy can be further characterized as idiopathic, which suggests a genetic
basis and is not associated with a structural abnormality; symptomatic, in which a
structural cause is identified; and ...
Psilocybin – Summary of knowledge and new perspectives
... Psilocybin is rapidly dephosphorylated to psilocin in the
intestinal mucosa by alkaline phosphatase and nonspeciﬁc
esterase. After ingestion, about 50% of the total volume of
psilocin is absorbed from the digestive tract of the rat
(Kalberer et al., 1962). After systemic parenteral administration of ...
... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disease
characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Converging
data from different studies point to ADHD abnormalities in fronto-striatal circuits.
Structural neuroimaging studies partially support f ...
Explaining The Efficiency Of Marte Meo From A Neurobiological
... mother uses Marte Meo and afterwards analyse it scientifically.
Since counselling with Marte Meo is picture based, the development improvements
of the child are also recorded on video. All videos are evaluated according to Marte
Meo elements with the video interaction analysis (action - reaction), a ...
pathophysiology of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
... of rare reports of sudden death among TCA-treated children, these drugs are not a first-line treatment for ADHD
and are only used after carefully weighing the risks and
benefits of treating or not treating a child who does not
respond to other agents.
Other noradrenergic agents help to control ADHD
frontal functions, connectivity and neural efficiency underpinning
... Neurophysiological fractionation of processes, to include possible inhibition, has been
demonstrated between error detection processes and error evaluation processes and with
the apparent inhibition or uncoupling of the latter, both of which are processes emanating
from the anterior cingulate. These ...
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... become excessively attached to objects or routines.
The prevalence of Asperger syndrome is not well known. It is not even well recognized
prior to the age of 5 or 6, primarily because the individual has normal language
development. Asperger syndrome occurs in all ethnic groups and affects every age
stimulant treatment history predicts frontal-striatal
... suppression towards normative levels during cognitive control as well (Liddle et al.,
2011; Peterson et al., 2009). Normalization of prefrontal cortex activation has also
been observed during emotional processing (Posner et al., 2011). During ...
Brain glycine receptors as a common target for alcohol and
... and consummatory actions, by using ethanol and substances with possible anti-alcohol
effects in the rat. Measurements of extracellular dopamine and amino acid levels in the
nAc were made using in vivo brain microdialysis in awake, freely-moving male Wistar
rats. In addition, a voluntary ethanol cons ...
Neurotoxicity and Mechanism of Toluene Abuse
... Neurotoxicity and Mechanism of Toluene Abuse
ments using human subjects are difficult to compare,
since they are often methodologically distinct and
limited by ethical and safety concerns. In addition, this
excitatory-depressive duality correlates to some degree
with clinical experience and reports ...
5. Gesture as a bridge between action and
... The gestures that speakers produce when they talk are also actions, but they do not
have a direct effect on the environment. They do, however, have an effect on
communication. Our question, then, is whether actions whose primary function is to
represent ideas influence thinking in the same way as ac ...
Applications of TMS to Therapy in Psychiatry
... was well tolerated and resulted in a 40% response rate. It
is possible that the response rate may have been even
better had the treatment period been extended to 3 or 4
A recent meta-analysis of the open trials of TMS in
depression found an effect size of 1.45 (Burt et al., 2002).
Although si ...
Glia cells, lipid metabolism and Alzheimer`s disease
... (ApoE), the main lipid carrier in the brain, and express lipoprotein receptors involved in the
uptakeof lipids. The human ApoE exists in three isoforms of which the ApoE4 isoform is
associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore,
epidemiological studies reveale ...
ﻧﺘﺎﯾﺞ داوری ﻣﻘﺎﻻت ﭼﻬﺎرﻣﯿﻦ ﮐﻨﮕﺮه ﻋﻠﻮم اﻋﺼﺎب ﭘﺎﯾﻪ و ﺑﺎ
... Are there Associations between age,education with study field of parents who have children with Autism
Effects of simulated weightlessness on glutamate content of serum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of
The effects of Vitamin C on hypothyroidism-associated learning a ...
INDUCTION AND RECOVERY TIME COURSE OF RAT BRAIN
... especially when induced; these can mediate lipid peroxidation, protein
inactivation, and DNA damage, leading to cellular injury (Cederbaum
et al., 2001). Elevated levels of CYP2E1 in the central nervous system
could thus lead to increased risk of neurotoxicity and influence the
cerebral disposition ...
Impact of health on intelligence
Health can affect intelligence in various ways. Conversely, intelligence can affect health. Health effects on intelligence have been described as being among the most important factors in the origins of human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood–brain barrier of the child is less effective. Such impairment may sometimes be permanent, sometimes be partially or wholly compensated for by later growth. Developed nations have implemented several health policies regarding nutrients and toxins known to influence cognitive function. These include laws requiring fortification of certain food products and laws establishing safe levels of pollutants (e.g. lead, mercury, and organochlorides). Comprehensive policy recommendations targeting reduction of cognitive impairment in children have been proposed.Improvements in nutrition (often involving specific micronutrients) due to in public policy changes have been implicated in IQ increases in many nations (as part of the overall Flynn effect), such as efforts fighting iodine deficiency in the U.S.