Effects of Residual Inhibition Phenomenon on Early Auditory Evoked
... the patients are important factors that may be involved in this reaction. Thus, this
neurophysiological process may not be detected by an evaluation of the cerebral function in
tinnitus subjects (Mirz et al., 1999). Tinnitus is not a single pathology, but rather a multiform
symptom (Guitton, 2006). ...
THE SUBFORNICAL ORGAN AND AREA POSTREMA MEDIATE
... using whole cell current clamp electrophysiology, reveal that leptin influences the
excitability of individual SFO neurons, causing both excitatory and inhibitory responses.
Furthermore, we find that leptin activates the same SFO neurons activated by amylin.
Given the association between obesity and ...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Reelin Signaling in the Adult
... intact brain and further emphasize that extracellular proteolysis of Reelin by tPA
and other yet-to-be identified proteases is important to consider when trying to
understand how altered Reelin processing and/or expression contribute to
cognitive impairments associated with disease states. In Chapte ...
Neurophysiology - American Physiological Society
... NEU 30. Describe the local factors affecting brain blood flow and contrast their effectiveness
with that of autonomic regulation of cerebral blood flow. Understand the role of blood flow in
relation to fMRI.
NEU 31. Describe cerebrovascular disorders (stroke, hemorrhage, aneurysm, migraine
Orexin/Hypocretin: A Neuropeptide at the Interface of Sleep, Energy
... II. Orexin and orexin receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Identification of orexin (Hypocretin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Orex ...
Leptin Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii
... (NTS). We demonstrated previously that arcuate injection of leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to brown
adipose tissue and kidney. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leptin signaling in the NTS affects sympathetic
neural outflow. Using a stereotaxic device in anesthetized ra ...
thesis - ETDA
... dystonia, which results in larger cortical representation areas of the affected body parts
and that may affect inhibition (Hallett M, 1998). While many theories are currently being
discussed in the literature, very few are consistently supported by findings in dystonic
patients. This could mean that ...
Previous results from our laboratory have shown that administration
... regions (Giedd et al., 2009; Shaw et al., 2008). While gray-matter volume decreases,
white matter volume increases linearly with age through the first 25 years of life (Giedd
et al., 1999; Giedd et al., 2009). The maturation of frontal lobe gray and white matter
accelerates during adolescence (Sowe ...
the Report - The Lasker Foundation
... exact definition used (Hendler, Mehravaran, Lu et al., 2016). While this may seem uncommon,
amblyopia has been described as the number one cause of monocular visual impairment in children
and young adults (NIH Facts About Amblyopia). The risk of amblyopia increases with prematurity,
developmental de ...
The Locus Ceruleus Responds to Signaling Molecules Obtained
... of ⬃1550 chick embryos of both sexes were used. All experimental procedures were approved by the local animal care committee and were
conducted in compliance with the Policy on the Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research (Society for Neuroscience).
Materials. Murine NGF was from Alomone Labs or Prom ...
Organization of brainstem nuclei
... zone (vestibular nuclei) dorsolaterally and terminating
in a general motor efferent zone ventromedially (hypoglossal). Intervening in a dorsal-to-ventral sequence
are the somatic afferent column (spinal nucleus of the
trigeminal), the visceral afferent column (solitary
nucleus and the dorsolateral s ...
NEURAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING THE LEARNING
... associative learning processes and conscious UCS expectancies modulate the expression
Few brain imaging studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) to investigate the neural substrates that support conditioned UCR diminution. In
this previous research, UCR diminution has ...
REM Sleep - Test Page
... mammalian lines. We reexamined this question, looking at
brainstem neuronal activity in addition to the EEG for signs of
REM sleep. Although we confirmed Allison and colleagues'
observation of no low-voltage EEG during sleep, we found
that brainstem neurons exhibited the phasic pattern of activation ...
Memantine is a clinically well tolerated N-methyl-D
... neurones indicate that the potency of memantine is
identical in the absence and presence of spermine (with
spermine 100 mM at − 70 mV IC50 of 2.1 9 0.1 mM,
without spermine IC50 of 2.39 0.3 mM; Parsons et al.
unpublished). It seems more likely that any changes in
the displacement of [3H](+ )MK-801 b ...
The dynamic cytoskeleton: backbone of dendritic spine plasticity
... was whether microtubules polymerized into spines from
the dendrite shaft or were locally nucleated within the
spine and then polymerized into the dendritic shaft, as
suggested by others .
To address this issue by direct observation within living
neurons, another group used time-lapse total inter ...
Structure and dynamics of the corticothalamic driver pathway in the
... along the processing chain, the stimulus specificity of responses as well as the input-output
transformations at each station. An interesting model system for investigating these dynamical
processes is the rodent whisker system. Rodents can solve highly complicated tasks with their
whiskers alone, d ...
Why We Sleep: The Temporal Organization of
... to homeostasis but can be suspended in rare cases for a
substantial portion of life.
In contrast to circadian biology, where the selective
advantage of predicting daylight and seasonal occurrence is
obvious , sleep is dangerous in the presence of predators.
Accordingly, in mammals, REM sleep amo ...
Propagation of tau pathology in Alzheimer`s disease
... neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In AD, tau becomes abnormally phosphorylated and
forms inclusions throughout the brain, starting in the entorhinal cortex and progressively affecting additional brain
regions as the disease progresses. Formation of these inclusions is tho ...
ORAL UPF/ TESI DOCT Nicotine addiction phenotypes in a BAC transgenic mouse
... nicotine addiction. Specifically, we focus on the cluster CHRNA5/A3/B4 of human
chromosome 15, which human genetic studies have identified as a strong candidate for
nicotine dependence and smoking-related behaviours. This cluster codifies for the
alpha5, alpha3 and beta4 subunits of the nicotinic ac ...
Interaction of the Frontal Eye Field and Superior Colliculus for
... functional interactions between these areas. One of the systems
that is close to meeting these demanding criteria is that for the
visual guidance of rapid or saccadic eye movements, a system
that extends from cerebral cortex through the superior colliculus (SC) to the midbrain and pons (for reviews ...
neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data
... mediated by neuronal reward prediction error signals which implement basic constructs of reinforcement learning theory. These signals are found in dopamine neurons, which emit
a global reward signal to striatum and frontal cortex, and in specific neurons in striatum, amygdala,
and frontal cortex pro ...
Psychopharmacology of conditioned reward
... stimuli and reward processes interact in a highly specific
manner; analyses of this phenomenon may provide valuable insight into the processes that underlie reward-related learning. The effects of dopaminergic agents with different mechanisms of action in this paradigm have revealed several interest ...
Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Huntington`s disease
... endogenous trophic support may contribute to disease onset
and/or progression. This hypothesis has aroused interest in
BDNF and/or BDNF mimetics as potential therapeutic agents,
and this has been intensified by reports of reduced BDNF levels
in the cerebral cortex and striatum of people with HD (Zuc ...
Age is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease. While much research has focused on diseases of aging, there are few informative studies on the molecular biology of the aging brain (usually spelled ageing brain in British English) in the absence of neurodegenerative disease or the neuropsychological profile of healthy older adults. However, research does suggest that the aging process is associated with several structural, chemical, and functional changes in the brain as well as a host of neurocognitive changes. Recent reports in model organisms suggest that as organisms age, there are distinct changes in the expression of genes at the single neuron level. This page is devoted to reviewing the changes associated with healthy aging.