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Study Guide
Module 1
Parkinson’s Disease
Module 3
spinal cord
spinal reflex
limbic system
cerebral cortex
corpus callosum
occipital lobes
parietal lobes
somatosensory cortex
frontal lobes
motor cortex
temporal lobes
Module 4
Module 5
Broca’s Area
Wernicke’s Area
split-brain patients
prefrontal cortex (frontal lobe)
Main Ideas
1) Memorize the lobes of the cerebral cortex and their functions. (Also motor cortex and somatosensory cortex).
*You will be required to identify the lobes on a map and to identify their functions.
2) Know the ethical questions of experimental methods, such as brain lesioning, split-brain operations, lobotomies.
3) Know three kinds of scans doctors/scientists use to study the brain today. (MRI/EEG/PET/CT)
4) *Be able to identify Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area on a map. Know their functions.
5) Know the functions of the left and right hemisphere.
Module 3 and Module 5
*The spinal cord is a column of nerves that transmit information between the brain and the peripheral
nervous system.
*A spinal reflex is controlled at the level of the spinal cord that may involve as few as one or two neurons;
Spinal reflexes are UNLEARNED!
*The thalamus is a relay station that plays a key role in regulating wakefulness and sleep.
*The hypothalamus is a small, pea-sized structure in the forebrain that helps regulate many vital bodily
functions, such as body temperature, hunger, sex, as well as emotional states such as aggression and
response to stress.
*The cerebral cortex is the wrinkled outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemisphere; controls
higher level mental functions, such as thought and language.
*People who suffer from debilitating epilepsy have been the subject of split-brain operations, severing the
corpus callosum.
*The cerebellum is responsible for balance and coordination.
*The amygdala is a brain structure that regulates states of emotional arousal.
*The Frontal lobe controls motor responses (Motor Cortex) and higher mental functions, such as thinking,
planning, problem solving, decision making, and accessing and acting upon stored memories.
*The Frontal lobe is also known as the YOU, and the executive center of the brain; it is similar to the central
processing unit of a computer.
*The Parietal lobe processes information relating to sensations of touch, pressure, temperature (hot/cold),
pain, and body movement; contains the somatosensory cortex.
*The Occipital lobe processes visual information, giving rise to visual sensation.
*The Temporal lobes process auditory information, giving rise to sensations of sound.
*Phineas Gage showed severe personality changes following a mining accident that damaged his prefrontal
cortex (FRONTAL LOBE).
*Broca’s Area is located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere and is responsible for speech production
language production; putting words into sentences.
*Wernicke’s Area is located in the temporal lobe, in conjunction with Broca’s Area, helps in speech and
language production.
*The Left Hemisphere is dominant for language and verbal formation, the use of spoken and written
language, logical reasoning, and problem solving.
*The Right Hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial abilities (reading maps, solving
puzzles), recognizing pictures and faces, patterns, images, interpreting hand gestures, perceiving and
expressing emotion, musical talent and creativity/artistic abilitiy.
*Lateralization is the specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions that
*A laceration is brain trauma in which a foreign object pierces the skull and injures the brain.
*Lesioning is the intentional destruction of brain tissue in order to observe the effects of behavior.
Short Essays
*Be able to list three techniques that scientists use to study the brain for defects and research.
*Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen affect the behavior of human beings. They send messages
through the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis; regulate bodily processes; excess hormones can cause
aggression and anxiety; Deficiency in hormones can cause sluggishness, or Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).