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Psychology Study Guide Module 1 neurons brain axon neurotransmitters synapse dendrites hormones nerve schizophrenia hallucinations delusions Parkinson’s Disease Stimulant amphetamines antidepressants endorphins Module 3 spinal cord spine spinal reflex amygdala brainstem cerebellum thalamus hypothalamus limbic system cerebral cortex cerebrum corpus callosum occipital lobes parietal lobes somatosensory cortex frontal lobes motor cortex temporal lobes Module 4 EEG EKG MRI PET lesioning Module 5 lateralization Broca’s Area Wernicke’s Area epilepsy split-brain patients prefrontal cortex (frontal lobe) laceration concussion stroke plasticity Main Ideas 1) Memorize the lobes of the cerebral cortex and their functions. (Also motor cortex and somatosensory cortex). *You will be required to identify the lobes on a map and to identify their functions. 2) Know the ethical questions of experimental methods, such as brain lesioning, split-brain operations, lobotomies. 3) Know three kinds of scans doctors/scientists use to study the brain today. (MRI/EEG/PET/CT) 4) *Be able to identify Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area on a map. Know their functions. 5) Know the functions of the left and right hemisphere. Module 3 and Module 5 *The spinal cord is a column of nerves that transmit information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system. *A spinal reflex is controlled at the level of the spinal cord that may involve as few as one or two neurons; Spinal reflexes are UNLEARNED! *The thalamus is a relay station that plays a key role in regulating wakefulness and sleep. *The hypothalamus is a small, pea-sized structure in the forebrain that helps regulate many vital bodily functions, such as body temperature, hunger, sex, as well as emotional states such as aggression and response to stress. *The cerebral cortex is the wrinkled outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemisphere; controls higher level mental functions, such as thought and language. *People who suffer from debilitating epilepsy have been the subject of split-brain operations, severing the corpus callosum. *The cerebellum is responsible for balance and coordination. *The amygdala is a brain structure that regulates states of emotional arousal. *The Frontal lobe controls motor responses (Motor Cortex) and higher mental functions, such as thinking, planning, problem solving, decision making, and accessing and acting upon stored memories. *The Frontal lobe is also known as the YOU, and the executive center of the brain; it is similar to the central processing unit of a computer. *The Parietal lobe processes information relating to sensations of touch, pressure, temperature (hot/cold), pain, and body movement; contains the somatosensory cortex. *The Occipital lobe processes visual information, giving rise to visual sensation. *The Temporal lobes process auditory information, giving rise to sensations of sound. *Phineas Gage showed severe personality changes following a mining accident that damaged his prefrontal cortex (FRONTAL LOBE). *Broca’s Area is located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere and is responsible for speech production language production; putting words into sentences. *Wernicke’s Area is located in the temporal lobe, in conjunction with Broca’s Area, helps in speech and language production. *The Left Hemisphere is dominant for language and verbal formation, the use of spoken and written language, logical reasoning, and problem solving. *The Right Hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial abilities (reading maps, solving puzzles), recognizing pictures and faces, patterns, images, interpreting hand gestures, perceiving and expressing emotion, musical talent and creativity/artistic abilitiy. *Lateralization is the specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions that overlap. *A laceration is brain trauma in which a foreign object pierces the skull and injures the brain. *Lesioning is the intentional destruction of brain tissue in order to observe the effects of behavior. Short Essays *Be able to list three techniques that scientists use to study the brain for defects and research. *Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen affect the behavior of human beings. They send messages through the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis; regulate bodily processes; excess hormones can cause aggression and anxiety; Deficiency in hormones can cause sluggishness, or Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).