Download Chapter 2 STUDY GUIDE

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Nervous system network models wikipedia, lookup

Causes of transsexuality wikipedia, lookup

Human multitasking wikipedia, lookup

Brain morphometry wikipedia, lookup

Premovement neuronal activity wikipedia, lookup

Donald O. Hebb wikipedia, lookup

Clinical neurochemistry wikipedia, lookup

Selfish brain theory wikipedia, lookup

Neuroscience and intelligence wikipedia, lookup

Neurophilosophy wikipedia, lookup

Haemodynamic response wikipedia, lookup

Brain wikipedia, lookup

Synaptic gating wikipedia, lookup

Activity-dependent plasticity wikipedia, lookup

Embodied language processing wikipedia, lookup

Feature detection (nervous system) wikipedia, lookup

Environmental enrichment wikipedia, lookup

Affective neuroscience wikipedia, lookup

Connectome wikipedia, lookup

Brain Rules wikipedia, lookup

Neuroanatomy wikipedia, lookup

Limbic system wikipedia, lookup

Cortical cooling wikipedia, lookup

Neuroesthetics wikipedia, lookup

Holonomic brain theory wikipedia, lookup

Neuropsychopharmacology wikipedia, lookup

Time perception wikipedia, lookup

Anatomy of the cerebellum wikipedia, lookup

Broca's area wikipedia, lookup

Neurolinguistics wikipedia, lookup

Neuropsychology wikipedia, lookup

History of neuroimaging wikipedia, lookup

Neuroplasticity wikipedia, lookup

Metastability in the brain wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive neuroscience wikipedia, lookup

Executive functions wikipedia, lookup

Dual consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Neural correlates of consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Aging brain wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive neuroscience of music wikipedia, lookup

Lateralization of brain function wikipedia, lookup

Human brain wikipedia, lookup

Emotional lateralization wikipedia, lookup

Inferior temporal gyrus wikipedia, lookup

Cerebral cortex wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Psychology
Study Guide
Module 1
neurons
brain
axon
neurotransmitters
synapse
dendrites
hormones
nerve
schizophrenia
hallucinations
delusions
Parkinson’s Disease
Stimulant
amphetamines
antidepressants
endorphins
Module 3
spinal cord
spine
spinal reflex
amygdala
brainstem
cerebellum
thalamus
hypothalamus
limbic system
cerebral cortex
cerebrum
corpus callosum
occipital lobes
parietal lobes
somatosensory cortex
frontal lobes
motor cortex
temporal lobes
Module 4
EEG
EKG
MRI
PET
lesioning
Module 5
lateralization
Broca’s Area
Wernicke’s Area
epilepsy
split-brain patients
prefrontal cortex (frontal lobe)
laceration
concussion
stroke
plasticity
Main Ideas
1) Memorize the lobes of the cerebral cortex and their functions. (Also motor cortex and somatosensory cortex).
*You will be required to identify the lobes on a map and to identify their functions.
2) Know the ethical questions of experimental methods, such as brain lesioning, split-brain operations, lobotomies.
3) Know three kinds of scans doctors/scientists use to study the brain today. (MRI/EEG/PET/CT)
4) *Be able to identify Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area on a map. Know their functions.
5) Know the functions of the left and right hemisphere.
Module 3 and Module 5
*The spinal cord is a column of nerves that transmit information between the brain and the peripheral
nervous system.
*A spinal reflex is controlled at the level of the spinal cord that may involve as few as one or two neurons;
Spinal reflexes are UNLEARNED!
*The thalamus is a relay station that plays a key role in regulating wakefulness and sleep.
*The hypothalamus is a small, pea-sized structure in the forebrain that helps regulate many vital bodily
functions, such as body temperature, hunger, sex, as well as emotional states such as aggression and
response to stress.
*The cerebral cortex is the wrinkled outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemisphere; controls
higher level mental functions, such as thought and language.
*People who suffer from debilitating epilepsy have been the subject of split-brain operations, severing the
corpus callosum.
*The cerebellum is responsible for balance and coordination.
*The amygdala is a brain structure that regulates states of emotional arousal.
*The Frontal lobe controls motor responses (Motor Cortex) and higher mental functions, such as thinking,
planning, problem solving, decision making, and accessing and acting upon stored memories.
*The Frontal lobe is also known as the YOU, and the executive center of the brain; it is similar to the central
processing unit of a computer.
*The Parietal lobe processes information relating to sensations of touch, pressure, temperature (hot/cold),
pain, and body movement; contains the somatosensory cortex.
*The Occipital lobe processes visual information, giving rise to visual sensation.
*The Temporal lobes process auditory information, giving rise to sensations of sound.
*Phineas Gage showed severe personality changes following a mining accident that damaged his prefrontal
cortex (FRONTAL LOBE).
*Broca’s Area is located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere and is responsible for speech production
language production; putting words into sentences.
*Wernicke’s Area is located in the temporal lobe, in conjunction with Broca’s Area, helps in speech and
language production.
*The Left Hemisphere is dominant for language and verbal formation, the use of spoken and written
language, logical reasoning, and problem solving.
*The Right Hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial abilities (reading maps, solving
puzzles), recognizing pictures and faces, patterns, images, interpreting hand gestures, perceiving and
expressing emotion, musical talent and creativity/artistic abilitiy.
*Lateralization is the specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions that
overlap.
*A laceration is brain trauma in which a foreign object pierces the skull and injures the brain.
*Lesioning is the intentional destruction of brain tissue in order to observe the effects of behavior.
Short Essays
*Be able to list three techniques that scientists use to study the brain for defects and research.
*Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen affect the behavior of human beings. They send messages
through the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis; regulate bodily processes; excess hormones can cause
aggression and anxiety; Deficiency in hormones can cause sluggishness, or Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).