Effects of Residual Inhibition Phenomenon on Early Auditory Evoked
... experienced a brief reduction in their tinnitus following the cutoff masker. This phenomenon has
come to be called as RI. Till now and in spite of its importance, RI has not been thoroughly
investigated and understanding its involved neural mechanisms. This indeed can improve our
knowledge about tin ...
battisti_nnconvulsions_en - ORBi
... seizures, and not just diagnosing every bowel movement as a seizure is in
looking for any associated signs, such as autonomic changes like BP or HR
increase. Autonomic sx may be an isolated finding in preemies, but usually
accompanies sz’s in term. The most common subtle manifestation is tonic
Stefan Koelsch: Brain and Music: A Contribution to the
... The cognitive processes of interpreting information, that is of building up a context
and integrating appropriate new information into it, are substantial for understanding music
as well as language. These processes are connected to the semantics of signs within sign
systems and have been well studi ...
Leptin Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii
... to BAT; (2) sympathoactivation to microinjection of leptin into
the NTS was associated with an increase in arterial pressure; and
(3) the renal sympathetic nerve responses to NTS leptin appear
to emanate from the caudal region of the NTS at the level of the
area postrema. Leptin signaling in the NTS ...
Neck Muscle Responses to Stimulation of Monkey Superior
... 2.5–50 A) unless otherwise noted. The GT100 threshold current was
either determined uniquely for each penetration or at each unique
stimulation site (described in more detail below). We decided to
determine such thresholds, as opposed to adopting a fixed current
level (e.g., a level of 50 A is typ ...
Versican Expression During Embryonic Development in the Mouse
... at embryonic day (E) 13.5, with a 21 day gestation typical for the mouse, and the versican signal
detected in the whole embryonic mouse was much higher than in adult tissues . In adults,
the highest expression of versican is found in the brain, with the least expression in the liver and
Anatomy And Pathology Of The Cerebellar Peduncle
... usually bilateral. Differentiating from infarction is important. This is because
of damage to both ipsilateral pontine nuclei (which deliver axons to the
contralateral cerebellar hemisphere) and the ipsilateral axons (which
originate from the contralateral pontine nuclei and course into the ipsilate ...
Anatomy And Pathology Of The Cerebellar Peduncle
... location, ranging from a small infarct localized into the cerebellar peduncle (Figure 2
and 3) to large involvement of the cerebellar hemisphere, and can be associated with
the involvement of pons, midbrain, thalamus and occipital lobe (Figure 4) (4). Bilateral
AICA territory infarcts are very rare ...
Emotional experiences of tension and suspense: psychological
... advice, and continuous support. I am also very grateful to Prof. Dr. Arthur Jacobs for his
support and for accepting to be the second reviewer of this thesis. I also thank Prof. Dr.
Winfried Menninghaus, Dr. Martin Rohrmeier, and Philipp Engel for their help and advice in
the context of the “Aesthet ...
Psilocybin – Summary of knowledge and new perspectives
... of psilocybin
Psilocybin is rapidly dephosphorylated to psilocin in the
intestinal mucosa by alkaline phosphatase and nonspeciﬁc
esterase. After ingestion, about 50% of the total volume of
psilocin is absorbed from the digestive tract of the rat
(Kalberer et al., 1962). After systemic parenteral adm ...
Neural mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep generation
... respiration as well as heart rate indicate a
behaviourally aroused state, whereas high voltage
slow waves in the EEG and significantly reduced
muscle tone along with reduced respiration and heart
rate are characteristic of deep sleep state. On the basis
of co-expression of such behavioural features
Interaction of the Frontal Eye Field and Superior Colliculus for
... functional interactions between these areas. One of the systems
that is close to meeting these demanding criteria is that for the
visual guidance of rapid or saccadic eye movements, a system
that extends from cerebral cortex through the superior colliculus (SC) to the midbrain and pons (for reviews ...
The Psychology of Chocolate
... targets the same brain structures as THC, the
active ingredient in cannabis. But to make a
substantial impact on the brain's own natural
anandamide levels, experts estimate you would
need to eat several kilos of chocolate!
Behavioural Brain Research Ventral pallidum roles in reward and
... given evidence for a ‘hedonic hotspot’ in the posterior ventral pallidum that we will describe below where ‘liking’ can actually be
enhanced by neurochemical activity.
This elimination of normal food reward (suppressed ‘liking’ and
‘wanting’, with enhanced aversion) that follows posterior ventral
A role for sleep in brain plasticity
... synchronized bursting in thalamocortical circuits,
transient increases of intra-cellular calcium and, in
some mammals, the release of somatotropins
[13,55,56]. A role for non-REM sleep in developmental cortical plasticity is suggested by maturational changes in non-REM sleep that coincide with
Histamine in the Nervous System
... detella pertussis toxin sensitization (Bphs), which controls both histamine-mediated autoimmune T cell and
vascular responses after pertussis toxin sensitization. Histamine H1R- and H2R-deficient mice have an imbalance in
Th1/Th2 cell function (318, 564) and a lower susceptibility
to develop autoimm ...
... stupid person those functions are so multiple and so fast and so
efficient that we don’t even notice or realise that they are
happening but they do happen, they happen seamlessly. So
what seems to be in a blink of an eye if you had to break down
and you only really understand people with various typ ...
Silent and Symptomatic Infarcts on Cranial Computerized
... The frequency of clinically silent infarcts might be overestimated in elderly populations, because elderly individuals
may not remember a stroke because of cognitive impairment
or they may not be admitted to hospital for their stroke. We
have recently reported on the importance to use several
CHAPTER 8 CEREBRAL CREATINE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES
... with speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, epileptic seizures,
behaviour disorders and gastrointestinal problems in adult patients (Kleefstra
et al., 2005). A neuropsychological profile was obtained for four affected Dutch
boys from two unrelated families and revealed hyperactive ...
Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes
... underlie the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The nature of the
VOR has inspired computational models with precisely defined
input parameters, and single-cell recordings have provided first
insights into the brain areas that are involved in the processing
of vestibular input (Grüsser et al., 1990). Wi ...
Extracellular Glutamate, Glutamine, and GABA in the Hippocampus
... medication-refractory epilepsy undergoing intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG)
monitoring. Probes were classified according to location and seizure activity into cortical
or hippocampal non-epileptic, epileptogenic, propagated, non-localized or lesion sites.
Samples were collected during the i ...
NEURAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING THE LEARNING
... stimuli have become innately hardwired over our evolutionary history to induce fear (e.g.
loud noises, darkness). However, fear can also be rapidly associated with neutral stimuli,
thereby permitting animals to adapt to an ever changing environment (Domjan, 2005;
Kim & Jung, 2006; LeDoux, 2003). Thi ...
Zebrafish Get Connected: Investigating Neurotransmission Targets
... Neurotransmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is critical for normal brain
development, behavior, learning and memory, and even maintenance of life. The nervous system
is exceedingly complex, and many enzymes, transporters, and receptors all work in concert to
maintain these functions ...
New Treatment Approaches in Tinnitus: The Place of Repetitive
... of these effects may last from minutes to hours. In the current
studies, there are articles suggesting that these neural changes
in tDCS-applied patients can be observed not only in the short
run after the application but also in the long run (29). In the
literature, some of the very seldom and mild ...
History of neuroimaging
The first neuroimaging technique ever is the so-called ‘human circulation balance’ invented by Angelo Mosso in the 1880s and able to non-invasively measure the redistribution of blood during emotional and intellectual activity.Then, in the early 1900s, a technique called pneumoencephalography was set. This process involved draining the cerebrospinal fluid from around the brain and replacing it with air, altering the relative density of the brain and its surroundings, to cause it to show up better on an x-ray, and it was considered to be incredibly unsafe for patients (Beaumont 8). A form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were developed in the 1970s and 1980s. The new MRI and CT technologies were considerably less harmful and are explained in greater detail below. Next came SPECT and PET scans, which allowed scientists to map brain function because, unlike MRI and CT, these scans could create more than just static images of the brain's structure. Learning from MRI, PET and SPECT scanning, scientists were able to develop functional MRI (fMRI) with abilities that opened the door to direct observation of cognitive activities.