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Transcript
Anatomy and Physiology Unit 6
Nervous System Review Sheet
Name _______________________
Date ______________ Hr _______
1. What are the three major overlapping functions of the nervous system?
2. What are the two major divisions of the nervous system? What does each include?
3. The main portion of a nerve cell is called the ___________________.
4. What other cell parts are housed in this main area?
5. The nerve processes that conduct the impulse/action potential away from the cell body are called
_________________.
6. The part of a nerve cell that receives impulses and carries them toward the cell body is called a/an
__________________.
7. __________________ neurons conduct impulses away from the CNS.
8. __________________ neurons conduct impulses to the CNS.
9. The white fatty substance around the neurons that speeds up impulse transmission is called
_________________________.
10. A self-propagating wave of electrical negativity that travels along the surface of the neuron membrane
is called a/an _______________________.
11. Indentations between the Schwann cells/myelin sheaths are called the _________ of ______________.
12. Nerve cells are also known as ___________________.
13. Chemical compounds released from the synaptic knobs of axon terminals into synaptic clefts to carry
impulses across the synapse are called ________________________________.
14. The gap or space between the dendrites of receiving neurons and the axon of sending neurons is called
the ________________________.
15. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and __________________________.
16. Stimulating a nerve cell increases the permeability of the membrane to _____________________ ions.
17. The movement of sodium through the membrane into the cell creates a ________________ charge
inside and a _______________ charge outside the membrane.
18. List the 4 types of neuroglial cells and their functions.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Match the following:
19. Axon _____
20. Dendrite _____
21. Depolarization _____
22. Repolarization _____
23. Myelin _____
24. Dura mater ____
25. Pia mater ____
26. Arachnoid ____
27. CSF ____
28. Ventricles ____
29. Synaptic vesicles _____
30. Choroid plexus _____
31. Corpus callosum ____
32. Brain stem _____
33. Cerebrum _____
34. Cerebellum _____
35. Medulla oblongata _____
36. Diencephalon _____
37. Spinal cord _____
a.
b.
c.
d.
Insulates the axon.
Receives the nerve impulse.
Sends the nerve impulse to the next neuron or effector.
The process of positive ions moving across the neuron membrane
by facilitated diffusion, and generating an action potential.
e. The process of ions moving across the neuron membrane by active
transport and thereby restoring the electrical potential of the
neuron.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Thickest, most outer membrane layer.
Cushions, provides nutrients, and removes waste.
Innermost membrane layer that adheres to the brain or spinal cord.
Space within the brain where cerebrospinal fluid circulates.
Middle, spider web-like membrane layer.
a. Produces cerebrospinal fluid.
b. A deep bridge of nerve fibers that connects the cerebral
hemispheres.
c. Release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine.
d. Consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
a. Serves as the center for spinal reflexes.
b. Provides higher mental functions, including memory and
reasoning.
c. Controls vital functions such as respiration and heart rate.
d. Regulates posture, maintains balance, and coordinates
complex skeletal muscle movements.
e. Central relay station for incoming sensory impulses, and
maintains homeostasis.
38. What is the difference between an afferent/sensory system and the efferent/motor system?
39. The ____________________ division dominates control of many visceral organ effectors under normal,
everyday conditions.
40. The ________________________ division serves as the emergency or stress system (fight or flight) in the body.
41. What is the difference between multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar neurons?
42. List the 4 major portions of the brain:
a.
b.
c.
d.
43. What is the major difference between gray matter and white matter in the CNS?
44. The ________________________ connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
45. The cerebrum is divided into lobes and the two halves are called _______________________________.
46. The largest part of human brain is the __________________________________ .
47. The inferior portion of the brain stem that joins the spinal cord to the brain and contains the reflex centers for
heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure is called the ______ ___________________.
48. The ridges or convolutions of the cerebrum are called ________________________________.
49. The second largest part of brain, which controls coordination, is called the ___________________________.
50. The three major structures that make up the diencephalon are:
51. What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
52. Why is cerebrospinal fluid important to the brain and the spinal cord?
53. What is the importance of the blood-brain barrier?
Diseases/Developmental Aspects of the Nervous System (review the following nervous system diseases)
54. What is Alzheimer’s and what causes it?
55. What is a cerebrovascular accident? What is it also called? What causes it?
Label the following diagrams:
Label the Diagram with the areas of the brain and Match the following functions:
1. ______ Regulates balance, movement & coordination.
2. ______ It controls vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, etc.
3. ______ Center of vision and reading ability; conscious seeing.
4. ______ Center of intellectual processes; reasoning, emotions;
translation of thought patterns into speech.
5. ______ This region is involved in the interpretation of auditory sensations. Involved with olfaction,
language, and emotional behavior.
Match the structure/description with the correct letter from the diagram below:
1. ______ Neuron cell bodies/unmyelinated fibers
2. ______ Gyri
3. ______ Myelinated axons
4. ______ Sulcus