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Transcript
Neurons, nerves and glia
Lucija Milošević
2nd year
University of Zagreb, School of Medicine
2013/14
Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat
Introduction



Neuron – individual nerve cell
– microscopic structure
Nerve – bundle of neurons which
travel together
– macroscopic structure
Glial cell – individual stromal cell
What is the main function of a neuron?

Conducting impulses
(in one direction)
Neuron


Dendrites – branching fibers
Cell body – contains the cell nucleus
Neuron


Axon – the biggest branch extending from
the cell body
Myelin sheath – fatty tissue which covers axons
White and gray matter
Synapse

Space where the nervous impulse jumps
from one neuron to another
Neurotransmitters


Contained in tiny
sacs
E.g. acetylcholine,
epinephrine,
dopamine,
serotonin
Nerves



Sensory nerves – carry impulses to
the brain and the spinal cord
Motor nerves – carry impulses from
the CNS to organs
Mixed nerves – contain both sensory
and motor fibers
Do glial cells and neurons have the
same origin?


Neurons - ectodermal origin
- parenchymal tissue
Glial cells - mesodermal origin
- stromal tissue
Glial cells



Do not transmit
impulses
Far more
numerous than
neurons
Can reproduce
Three types of glial cells


Oligodendrocytes – form the myelin
sheath which protects neurons in the CNS
Microglia – as phagocytes protect neurons
in response to inflammation
Astrocytes


Transport water and salts between
capillaries and neurons
Blood-brain barrier – regulates passage of
potentially harmful substances from the
blood
References

The language of medicine, Davi-Ellen
Chabner
http://www.merriam-webster.com/

Thank you for your attention!
