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The Brainstem is the
oldest part of the brain,
beginning where the
spinal cord swells and
enters the skull. It is
responsible for
automatic survival
The Medulla is the base of
the brainstem
It controls autonomic
functions and relays nerve
signals between the brain
and spinal cord.
blood pressure
heart rate
reflex arcs
Pons - A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an
important role in controlling arousal.
It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis...
Information from the ear first enters the brain in the
Certain parts are important for the level of
consciousness and for sleep.
The Reticular Formation controls:
Cardiac Reflexes
Motor Functions
Regulates Awareness
Relays Nerve Signals to the Cerebral Cortex
The is the brain’s sensory
switchboard, located on top
of the brainstem. It directs
messages to the sensory areas
in the cortex and transmits
replies to the cerebellum and
- The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. It
helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance.
-Controls leg and arm movements
-Damage causes awkward movement to the inability to stand
The Limbic System is a
system of neural
structures at the border
of the brainstem and
cerebrum, associated
with emotions such as
fear, aggression and
drives for food and sex.
It includes the
hippocampus, amygdala,
and hypothalamus.
The Amygdala consists of two
almond-shaped neural clusters
linked to the emotions of fear
and anger.
-Discriminates objects for
organisms survival
-* Can I eat it?
-* Will it eat me?
-* Can I have sex with it?
 Determines what parts of information should be
stored into durable, lasting, neural traces in the cortex
 Helps us recall information by activating the parts of
the brain we used for that activity
 Extensive damage leads to an inability to retain
conscious memories
The Hypothalamus lies below
(hypo) the thalamus.
-Directs several maintenance
activities like eating, drinking,
body temperature, and
control of emotions.
- It helps govern the endocrine
system via the pituitary gland.
- Monitors reward activities
- Eating, Drinking, and Sex
-Emotion, Stress, and Reward
 Large clusters of neurons that work with the
cerebellum and cortex to control voluntary
 How you ride a bike, swim, or jump off a bridge.
 Damage can lead to unwanted movement (Parkinson's)
Rats cross an electrified
grid for self-stimulation
when electrodes are
placed in the reward
(hypothalamus) center
(top picture). When the
limbic system is
manipulated, a rat will
navigate fields or climb
up a tree (bottom
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the
cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and
information processing center.
Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are
separated by prominent fissures.
 Frontal Lobe (forehead)
 Personality, Intelligence, Control of Voluntary Muscles
 Parietal Lobe (top to rear)
 Spatial Location, Attention, Motor Control
 Occipital Lobe (back of head)
 Visual Stimuli and Processing
 Temporal Lobe (Side)
 Hearing, language processing, memory
The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the
frontal lobes that control voluntary movements.
The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives
information from skin surface and sense organs.
More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or
association areas of the cortex. These integrate sensory and
motor information. (75% of cerebral cortex)
Aphasia is an impairment of language, usually
caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s
area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area
(impaired understanding).
Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking
 Complex cable of nerves that connects brain to rest of
the body
 Carries motor impulses from the brain to internal
organs and muscles
 Carries sensory information from extremities and
internal organs to the brain
 400,000 people a year in US either partial or complete
 The spinal cord controls some protective reflex movements
without any input from the brain