battisti_nnconvulsions_en - ORBi
... Myoclonic seizures carry the worst prognosis in terms of
neuro-developmental outcome and seizure recurrence.
Focal clonic seizures have the best prognosis.
Seizures due to Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and late onset
hypocalcemia carry a good prognosis for long term neurodevelopmental outcome while se ...
Neocortical Very Fast Oscillations (Ripples, 80–200 Hz) During
... oscillations or ripples (80 –200 Hz) during electrographic seizures in
cats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. The animals displayed spontaneously occurring and electrically induced seizures comprising
spike-wave complexes (2–3 Hz) and fast runs (10 –20 Hz). Neocortical ripples had much higher ampl ...
State transitions between wake and sleep, and within the
... whom go along with Dement and Kleitman7 and
Rechtschaffen and Kales8 who define sleep onset in
stage 1 based on criteria of alpha reduction. The
most frequently used definition, however, situates
it at the first appearance of sleep spindles or
K-complexes (stage 2),6,9,10,24–26 probably because
... Graziano MSA and Kastner S (2011) Human consciousness and its relationship to social
neuroscience: A novel hypothesis. Cognitive Neuroscience, 2: 98-113.
Graziano MSA and Kastner S (2011) Awareness as a perceptual model of attention. Cognitive
Neuroscience, 2: 125-133.
Graziano MSA (2011) New Insigh ...
Analysis of sleep spindles and model of their generation
... 2.6 Topographic distribution of relation between sleep spindles
amplitude and frequency. Each dot corresponds to one spindle. Positions of plots correspond to arrangement of electrodes
in 10/20 system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Topographical distribution of sleep spindle ...
Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Bottom-Up View
... Vogt et al. 1987, 1995). Although the distinction between the dACC and the PCC is quite clear
cytoarchitectonically (the latter is granular), no sulcal marker in humans or monkeys indicates
their border. To solve this problem, Vogt (2009) provided neuroimaging templates to estimate
the extent of dif ...
Recasting the Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement System
... irrelevant distractor stimulus, the initial activity of MT and
MST neurons exhibits very little selectivity for the target
(Ferrera and Lisberger 1997b; Recanzone and Wurtz 2000).
The pursuit eye velocity evoked after comparable short delays
mainly follows the average of the two motion signals. The ...
The Role of Mirror Neurons in Movement
... performing a similar action. Some premotor (F5) mirror neurons have also been
shown to be corticospinal neurons, meaning that spinal targets are also influenced
during action observation. Simultaneous electromyography (EMG) recordings from
hand and arm muscles provide important evidence that the act ...
Kazumi TAKAHASHI†*, Jian-Sheng LIN† and Kazuya - HAL
... which meet those of the EEC Guidelines (86/609/EEC) and the Policy on Ethics approved by the Society for
Neuroscience (1993). All efforts were made to minimize the number of animals used and their suffering.
Twenty-three male adult C57BL/6 mice (Harlan, France; 26-35 g at the time of surgery) were u ...
Electrophysiological markers of Rapid Eye Movements in
... spatial and temporal limitations of non-invasive electrophysiological or imaging
studies, it is hard to be conclusive. In addition, other imaging or neurosurgical
studies challenged the idea that only brainstem was involved in REMs generation
(Doricchi, Iaria et al. 2007; Hong, Harris et al. 2009).
Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical
... as required in our design. REM sleep was significantly reduced in the
RSD group relative to the two control groups (undisturbed sleep and
NF). Indirect effects of RSD on NREM sleep were reproduced in the
NF group. NREM sleep continuity, measured by the length of NREM
sleep bouts, was decreased by bo ...
View/Open - DukeSpace
... saccades – and the early findings on multiple coordinate systems in the SEF inspired a new generation of
experiments that have been very informative. This
nascent research posits a higher level function for
the SEF. The premise is that the SEF is well poised
for controlling saccadic behavior due to ...
Man to Machine, Applications in Electromyography
... cells in that motor unit) and comprises the basis of muscle movement. The depolarization
that travels along the muscle fiber and can be detected on the surface of the muscle as a
small electrical potential called the muscle action potential (MAP). Each muscle is comprised
of many muscle motor units, ...
Topographic Organization of Corticospinal Projections from the
... that the precentral motor field contained a complete map of the
body. A large part of the body map was located in cytoarchitectonic area 4. However, the representation of axial body musculature was located in the caudal part of area 6. In fact, it was
principally the presence of axial representation ...
Extracellular voltage threshold settings can be tuned for optimal
... Rey et al 2015). Fortunately, it appears that accurate spike
sorting may not be necessary for good BCI performance
(Ventura 2008, Fraser et al 2009, Chestek et al 2011, Malik
et al 2014). Rather, a threshold can be set, and all voltage
transients that exceed that threshold (that is, ʻthreshold
The Study of Brain Activity in Sleep
... Changes in neuromodulators during NREM sleep (in particular reduced levels
of arousal-related neurotransmitters) lead cortical and thalamic neurons to
enter in a “bistable” state. In this condition, a spontaneous or induced
opening of leakage K+ channels triggers a series of membrane currents that
Vestibular System: The Many Facets of a
... sense the pull of gravity (a form of linear acceleration). The signals from the semicircular
canals and the otolith organs are complementary; their combined activation is necessary to
explore and comprehend the enormous range of
physical motions experienced in everyday life.
The vestibular system di ...
Functional Properties of Corticotectal Neurons in the Monkey`s
... had some form of activity that preceded
visually guided saccadic eye movements,
including a range of neuron activity from
purely visual to purely movement related.
It is clear there are signals in the frontal eye
field that could drive saccadic eye movements and neural pathways by which these
Planarian shows decision-making behavior in response to multiple
... As an animal survives under exposure to many kinds of
stimuli, its nervous system detects sensory cues and converts this information into adaptive movement. For behaviors in response to a simple stimulus, sensory neurons
sometimes communicate directly with motor neurons;
however, when animals are ex ...
Signal processing methods in Sleep Research
... The role of sleep is to downscale synaptic strength to a baseline level that is
energetically sustainable, makes efficient use of space, and is beneficial for
learning and memory.
Tononi, G., & Cirelli, C. (2014). Sleep and the price of plasticity: from synaptic
and cellular homeostasis to memory co ...
Eye fields in the frontal lobes of primates
... Two eye fields have been identified in the frontal lobes of primates: one is situated dorsomedially within the frontal cortex and will be
referred to as the eye field within the dorsomedial frontal cortex ŽDMFC.; the other resides dorsolaterally within the frontal cortex and is
commonly referred to ...
- Northumbria Research Link
... Humans can only survive for a few minutes in the absence of oxygen (O2) and the brain’s
susceptibility to hypoxia depicts the key factor determining this critical dependency (1). Cerebral
oxygenation is reduced at rest in hypoxia and neuronal damage can occur in the face of a prolonged
mismatch betw ...
Electrophysiological evidence that noradrenergic neurons of the rat
... the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) (Dahlström and Fuxe, 1964). By means of their widespread
projections throughout the entire brain, these neurons are thought to play a crucial role in a variety of
physiological and behavioral functions including sleep (Jacobs et al., 1990; Jouvet, 1972; Jacobs and
Lateral prefrontal cortex: architectonic and functional organization
... of some of the areas he identified in the monkey with
those of the human brain raise several questions. For
instance, in the mid-lateral prefrontal cortex of the
monkey, Walker identified a large granular region as
area 46, abutting posteriorly onto area 8 (see figure
1b). Yet, in all maps of the hu ...
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA. The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain–computer interface in scientific literature.The field of BCI research and development has since focused primarily on neuroprosthetics applications that aim at restoring damaged hearing, sight and movement. Thanks to the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels.Following years of animal experimentation, the first neuroprosthetic devices implanted in humans appeared in the mid-1990s.