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Transcript
Brain Research Reviews 32 Ž2000. 413–448
www.elsevier.comrlocaterbres
Full-length review
Eye fields in the frontal lobes of primates
Edward J. Tehovnik ) , Marc A. Sommer, I-Han Chou, Warren M. Slocum, Peter H. Schiller
Department of Brain and CognitiÕe Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E25-634, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Accepted 19 October 1999
Abstract
Two eye fields have been identified in the frontal lobes of primates: one is situated dorsomedially within the frontal cortex and will be
referred to as the eye field within the dorsomedial frontal cortex ŽDMFC.; the other resides dorsolaterally within the frontal cortex and is
commonly referred to as the frontal eye field ŽFEF.. This review documents the similarities and differences between these eye fields.
Although the DMFC and FEF are both active during the execution of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, the FEF is more
dedicated to these functions. Lesions of DMFC minimally affect the production of most types of saccadic eye movements and have no
effect on the execution of smooth pursuit eye movements. In contrast, lesions of the FEF produce deficits in generating saccades to briefly
presented targets, in the production of saccades to two or more sequentially presented targets, in the selection of simultaneously presented
targets, and in the execution of smooth pursuit eye movements. For the most part, these deficits are prevalent in both monkeys and
humans. Single-unit recording experiments have shown that the DMFC contains neurons that mediate both limb and eye movements,
whereas the FEF seems to be involved in the execution of eye movements only. Imaging experiments conducted on humans have
corroborated these findings. A feature that distinguishes the DMFC from the FEF is that the DMFC contains a somatotopic map with eyes
represented rostrally and hindlimbs represented caudally; the FEF has no such topography. Furthermore, experiments have revealed that
the DMFC tends to contain a craniotopic Ži.e., head-centered. code for the execution of saccadic eye movements, whereas the FEF
contains a retinotopic Ži.e., eye-centered. code for the elicitation of saccades. Imaging and unit recording data suggest that the DMFC is
more involved in the learning of new tasks than is the FEF. Also with continued training on behavioural tasks the responsivity of the
DMFC tends to drop. Accordingly, the DMFC is more involved in learning operations whereas the FEF is more specialized for the
execution of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements. q 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Dorsomedial frontal cortex; Supplementary eye field; Frontal eye field; Oculomotor behaviour; Skeletomotor behaviour; Learning; Monkey;
Human
Contents
1. Introduction .
.......................................................................
2. The anatomy of the DMFC and the FEF .
2.1. The anatomy of the DMFC . . . . .
2.2. The anatomy of the FEF . . . . . . .
2.3. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3. Electrical stimulation of the DMFC and the FEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. Maps and coding schemes in monkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. Electrical stimulation and the behavioural state of monkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. Skeletomotor responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the DMFC and FEF in monkeys
3.4. DMFC and FEF stimulation in humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4. Lesions and reversible inactivation of the DMFC and the FEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1. The effects of lesions and reversible inactivation of the DMFC in monkeys . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. The effects of lesions and reversible inactivation of the FEF in monkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. Direct comparison of DMFC and FEF lesions and inactivation on visually guided eye movements
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Corresponding author. Fax: q1-617-253-8943; e-mail: [email protected]
0165-0173r00r$ - see front matter q 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 1 6 5 - 0 1 7 3 Ž 9 9 . 0 0 0 9 2 - 2
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414
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
414
4.4. The effects of DMFC and FEF damage in humans .
4.5. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
................................................
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5. Single-cell recordings in the DMFC and FEF . . . . . .
5.1. The characteristics of single neurons in the DMFC
5.2. The characteristics of single neurons in the FEF . .
5.3. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Event-related potentials in humans .
7. Metabolic imaging of the DMFC and FEF in humans .
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435
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436
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9. Misplaced human FEF? .
Acknowledgements .
References
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8. Motor learning and the DMFC and FEF
10. Discussion
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441
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441
1. Introduction
Two areas within the frontal lobes play important roles
in eye movement control. One area resides laterally and is
known as the frontal eye field ŽFEF.. The other resides
medially and dorsally and is often termed the supplementary eye field Žsee Schall w230x.. As will become clear from
this review, the size, exact location, and precise function of
this second eye field are still under debate; therefore, we
refer to it using the anatomical designation, the dorsomedial frontal cortex ŽDMFC., or more specifically ‘‘the eye
field within the DMFC’’. Our examination of the literature
suggests that the differences between the two frontal lobe
eye fields, the FEF and DMFC, are profound. The FEF
plays an important role in generating eye movements,
utilizing an eye-centered code, whereas the DMFC integrates oculomotor and skeletomotor behaviour, utilizing
predominantly a head-centered code, and is involved in
visuo-motor learning.
One of the first investigators to examine the role of the
cortex in eye-movement control was Hitzig w106x. Studying
patients unable to move their eyes voluntarily, Hitzig
found that he could induce eye movements by delivering
pulses of direct current through electrodes attached to the
skull. Hitzig believed that the eye movements produced
were due to excitation of brain tissue. However, the resulting eye movements could have been due to surface conduction to the eye muscles; to resolve this ambiguity,
Hitzig needed to stimulate the brain directly. In collaboration with Fritsch, he performed these experiments on dogs.
In 1870 they established that neocortical stimulation elicited
movement of the extremities, but they failed to produce
eye movements w68,307x.
Soon thereafter, Ferrier w59x discovered that eye movements could be evoked in monkeys from parts of the
frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, the superior colliculi,
and the cerebellum. The frontal lobe eye field that Ferrier
described extends from the arcuate sulcus to the midline
ŽFig. 1A,B.. It is remarkable that the only major modification to this eye field since Ferrier’s original publication has
been a split into two subfields, one wholly within the curve
of the arcuate sulcus and the other about a centimeter
away, near the midline.
At the end of the 19th century, tissue removal and
electrical stimulation were the main techniques used to
examine brain function in animals. Interpretation of the
former was difficult due to qualitative, irreproducible behavioural testing and post-operative infections w77,107x.
Electrical stimulation results, on the other hand, were more
unequivocal and enlightening. Beevor and Horsley w10x
confirmed Ferrier’s findings showing that eye movements
could be elicited from both the prearcuate gyrus and the
peri-midline cortex in the frontal lobe of monkeys. They
further showed that eye movements could be evoked from
the lateral frontal convexity of an ape as well w11x, and this
was confirmed by Grunbaum
and Sherrington w92x and
¨
w
x
Leyton and Sherrington 144 after the turn of the century
in orangutans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. However, neither
of these groups uncovered the existence of an eye field
near the midline of their apes. Subsequently, investigators
focused on the prearcuate eye field, which eventually
became known as the FEF; the medial eye field representation was essentially ignored for decades.
Neurosurgeons were, in large part, responsible for reviving scientific curiosity about the eye fields in the
DMFC. Foerster w60,61x reported that there were two main
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
415
Fig. 1. Classic results in examining the neocortical contribution to eye movements. Anterior is to the left and dorsal to the top unless otherwise noted. ŽA.
Stimulation regions of Ferrier w59x, lateral view. In the frontal lobe, eye movements were evoked from region 12 only Žborder surrounding it is emphasized
in bold.. Species was Macaca cynomolgus, according to Walker w302x, although this was not noted in Ferrier’s paper. ŽB. Dorsal view of Ferrier’s
stimulation regions Žanterior at top.. ŽC. Foerster’s map of movements and sensations evoked by electrical stimulation of human brain w60x. The two frontal
lobe eye fields he found are outlined in bold. Note, in an apparent attempt to simplify his presentation, he superimposed his functional findings on the
cytoarchitectural map of Vogt and Vogt w296x. Human brain landmarks relevant to this review are labeled: IFS, inferior frontal sulcus; MFG, middle frontal
gyrus; SFS, superior frontal sulcus; PCS, precentral sulcus; CS, central sulcus Žalso known as Rolandic sulcus.. ŽD. Map of human peri-Rolandic motor
and sensory areas, from Penfield and Jasper w194x.
regions from which eye movements could be evoked in the
human frontal lobe. One was in the FEF, on the lateral
convexity of the cortex Žlower bold-outlined region in Fig.
1C., and the other was in Vogts’ area 6ab, medial to the
FEF Župper bold-outlined region in Fig. 1C.. Both regions
were anterior to the primary, precentral motor strip. Foerster w60x did not specify what part of Area 6ab was related
to eye movements. Penfield and Jasper w194x and Penfield
416
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
and Rasmussen w195x clarified the location of the 6ab eye
field in their subsequent studies of the human brain, localizing it to the rostral part of the supplementary motor area
ŽFig. 1D.. Penfield also confirmed Foerster’s finding that
the human FEF was on the lateral convexity, anterior to
the precentral motor strip ŽFig. 1D, lower set of eyes.. At
about the same time, Woolsey w309x and Woolsey et al.
w311x showed in an assortment of animals that the representation of the body was oriented eyes-rostrally and tailcaudally in the DMFC of every animal studied.
Since the 1950s, research directed toward the neural
control of eye movements has profited from five major
methodological advances: Ž1. the development of a variety
of microelectrodes suitable for single-cell recordings and
for microstimulation; Ž2. the emergence of instrumentation
that allowed investigators to accurately measure eye movements; Ž3. the introduction of behavioral methods that
made it possible to train animals to move their eyes in
response to sensory stimuli in predictable, reproducible
ways; Ž4. the development of techniques that allowed for
making focal brain lesions or for reversibly inactivating
selected brain areas using a variety of pharmacological
agents; and Ž5. the application of various imaging procedures to localize areas involved in eye-movement control.
This review focuses extensively on research conducted
using these methods. We will compare and contrast the
function and organization of the two eye fields in the
frontal lobes based on research carried out in primates,
including humans.
2. The anatomy of the DMFC and the FEF
2.1. The anatomy of the DMFC
2.1.1. Monkey DMFC
In monkeys, the DMFC is situated anterior to the motor
cortex. It occupies a region between the superior limb of
the arcuate sulcus and the cerebral midline dorsal to the
cingulate cortex. Brodmann w29x defined this area as the
mesial portion of area 6. Subsequently, this region was
partitioned. Vogt and Vogt w295x divided the DMFC into
rostral and caudal zones: 6ab and 6aa , respectively ŽFig.
2A.. von Bonin and Bailey w297x also partitioned the
DMFC into rostral and caudal zones, but the rostral zone
was appreciably smaller. Barbas and Pandya w8x divided
the DMFC into three regions, a medial region they called
MII, a rostrolateral region they called 6DR, and a caudal
region they called 6DC. Some have also suggested that the
DMFC includes area 8b w147x, which is situated immediately adjacent to the anterior border of area 6 w20x.
Woolsey et al. w311x observed that the DMFC contains a
somatotopic map with the head represented rostrally and
the tail represented caudally. Although some have disputed
this general topography w305x, there is now overwhelming
evidence corroborating the original observations of
Woolsey w27,64,66,86,110,149,166,228,243,275,308x.
Single-unit recording experiments have shown that neurons modulated by eye movements are located rostrally,
that neurons modulated by hindleg movements are located
Fig. 2. Monkey DMFC. Each panel shows a top view of one hemisphere of the frontal cortex of a macaque monkey. ŽA. The DMFC is divided according
to the scheme of Vogt and Vogt w295x. ŽB. Each oval represents a region from the DMFC that contained cells modulated by eye, forelimb, and hindleg
movements in the same monkey ŽBrinkman and Porter w27x, monkey SMA-3.. ŽC. Each oval represents a region from the DMFC from which movements
could be evoked using electrical stimulation ŽLuppino et al. w149x, monkey MK-7r.. ŽD. The DMFC is divided according to the scheme of Matelli et al.
w159x. A scale bar is shown at the bottom. The central sulcus ŽCs., arcuate sulcus ŽAs., and principal sulcus ŽPs. are indicated in ŽA..
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
caudally, and that neurons modulated by forelimb movement are located in between the rostral and caudal extremes of the DMFC ŽRef. w27x; see Fig. 2B.. Neurons with
responses modulated by distal forelimb movement are
found anterior to those modulated by proximal forelimb
movements. These findings concur with results obtained
using microstimulation ŽRefs. w149,166x; see Fig. 2C..
2.1.2. Multiple sub-areas of monkey DMFC
Based on cytoarchitectonics, Matelli et al. w159x partitioned the DMFC into four regions: F2, F3, F6, and F7
ŽFig. 2D.. More recently, these regions have been given
functional labels now adopted by Tanji and colleagues
under the premise that these regions are functionally distinct w69,161,162,173,254,255,277,279x. These labels have
also been used to organize data from functional imaging
experiments carried out on humans w204x. In this nomenclature, F2 corresponds with the premotor area, F3 with
the supplementary motor area, F6 with the pre-supplementary motor area, and F7 with the supplementary eye fields.
The subdivisions, F2, F3, F6, and F7, as established by
Matelli et al. w159x, were based on six macaque monkeys.
As sections were taken more rostrally in the DMFC,
proceeding from F3 to F6 or from F2 to F7, the cells in
layer V exhibited a noticeable decrease in size. 1 Layer V
was thicker in F3 than in F6 and layer V was thicker in F2
than in F7. Progressing from caudal to rostral regions of
F3, a decrease in the frequency of the giant pyramidal cells
was observed. Although Matelli et al. w159x suggest that F2
differs from F3 and that F6 differs from F7, this is not
apparent from their figures. 2 Based on their illustrations,
one would be hard put to establish a difference between F2
and F3 and a difference between F6 and F7. Furthermore,
a discrete border between F3 and F6 and between F2 and
F7 is hard to discern in their Fig. 3, which depicts horizontal sections including F3 and F6, and in their Fig. 7 which
depicts parasagittal sections including F2 and F7. Current
anatomical techniques do not convincingly denote marked
differences between these areas other than cell size and
laminar thickness.
Even though the cytoarchitectonics of the DMFC do not
support the subdivisions of Matelli et al. w159x, the projections from these regions might favor a segregation such
that eye-movement areas only innervate F7 Žthe supplementary eye fields.. The FEF and superior colliculus are
connected with area F7 w5,67,108,132,231,257x, yet they
are also connected with areas F2, F3 and F6 w5,128,
132,231,257x.
Studies examining the projections between the DMFC
and motor cortex show that the entire DMFC Ži.e., F2, F3,
F6, and F7. sends projections to the forelimb area of the
1
Matelli et al. w159x: their Fig. 6, cf. F3 and F6 and their Fig. 9, cf. F2
and F7.
2
Compare Fig. 5 with Fig. 8 of Matelli et al. w159x.
417
motor cortex w56,79,129,140,146,160x. Motor cortex, however, does not project to F6 and F7 w150x, although it does
innervate F2 and F3 w140,150x. Thus the cytoarchitectonics
and the efferent and the afferent connections of the DMFC
do not provide an unambiguous way of subdividing the
DMFC according to the scheme of Matelli et al. w159x.
2.1.3. Neuron size and somatotopy of monkey DMFC
Matelli et al. w159x observed that the thickness of cortex
decreases from caudal to rostral DMFC. 3 The number of
cells within a cylinder of constant cross-sectional area of 1
mm2 of cerebral cortex is constant w16,23,217x, which
makes it understandable why cortical thickness from caudal to rostral portions of the DMFC decreases concurrently
with decreases in cell size as illustrated by Matelli et al.
w159x. Mitz and Wise w166x show that the number of cells
with large diameters Žover 600 mm2 . also decreases systematically from caudal to rostral DMFC.
It is well-known that there is a direct correspondence
between cell size and axon diameter w259x and that the
larger the cell, the further the axon tends to project from
the cell body w114,172x. That cells decrease in size going
from caudal to rostral DMFC concurs with the somatotopy
of the DMFC. Caudal DMFC, which has been associated
with the hindlimbs, projects as far as the lumbarrthoracic
cord w99,110x; intermediate DMFC, which has been associated with forelimbs, projects as far as the cervical cord
w56,99,110,123,132,151,221x; and rostral DMFC, which
has been associated with the eyes and head, projects as far
as the brainstem w108,132,142,187,256,257x. Hence, the
difference in cell size across the DMFC accords with its
general somatotopy.
2.1.4. ConnectiÕity of monkey DMFC
As already alluded by the foregoing, the DMFC is
innervated by both oculomotor as well as skeletomotor
regions of the brain. It innervates the FEF and the superior
colliculus w5,67,108,128,132,231,257x, both of which are
major channels to the saccade generator in the brainstem.
Also, it receives robust efferent and afferent projections
from the motor cortex w56,79,129,140,146,150,160x and
sends fibres to a myriad of brainstem w108,132,142,187,
256,257x and spinal cord w56,99,110,123,132,151,221x nuclei involved in the execution of eye, head, and limb
movements.
In addition, visual centers, such as the lateral intraparietal area and the medial superior temporal area, innervate
the DMFC w108,232x, and somatosensory areas, such as the
superior parietal lobule, send robust projections to it
w113,202x. Moreover, DMFC is reciprocally connected to
prefrontal cortex w108x and innervates various thalamic and
striatal sites that have been implicated in oculomotor and
3
Caudal: F2 and F3s 2162 and 2157 mm, respectively. Rostral: F6
and F7s1990 and 1992 mm, respectively.
418
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Fig. 3. Monkey FEF. Anterior is to the right for panels A and C, and to the left for panel B. ŽA. Location of the FEF on a lateral view of monkey frontal
lobe, defined using the - 50 mA current-threshold criterion Žmodified from Bruce et al. w31x.. Small arrows and shading delimit the mediolateral range of
FEF. Most of the FEF, however, extends into the arcuate sulcus and cannot be seen. CS, central sulcus; AS, arcuate sulcus. ŽB. Monkey cortex as
parcellated by Brodmann w29x. Species is presumably Cercopithecus campbelli Žsee von Bonin and Bailey w297x, p. 64.. ŽC. Parcellation of prefrontal
cortex by Walker w301x. Species is M. mulatta. ŽD. Coronal section through the genu of the arcuate sulcus, showing the parcellation of von Bonin and
Bailey w297x from mediodorsal Žtop. to ventrolateral Žright.. Species is M. mulatta; as, superior branch of arcuate sulcus; ai, inferior branch of arcuate.
skeletomotor functions w108,125,128,158,187,258x. Finally,
this region sends projections to the red nucleus
w108,257,289x.
2.1.5. Human DMFC
As in monkeys, the DMFC in humans is located immediately anterior to the motor cortex on the dorsal surface of
the hemisphere ŽFig. 1C,D.. The area is situated anterior to
the precentral sulcus and is bounded laterally by the
superior frontal sulcus and medioventrally by the cingulate
cortex w32x. Brodmann w28x has defined this region as
mesial area 6 of the agranular cortex and Campbell w32x
called it the intermediate precentral area. Vogt and Vogt
w295x subsequently divided the region into caudal and
rostral zones Ži.e., 6aa and 6ab . similar to what they had
done in the monkey. Electrical stimulation of this region in
humans evokes eye movements from rostral sites and
hindleg movements from caudal sites w194,310x. This topographic layout is similar to that observed for the DMFC of
monkeys.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
2.2. The anatomy of the FEF
2.2.1. Monkey FEF
There has been general agreement among electrophysiological studies regarding the gross location of the FEF in
the monkey. Ferrier w59x showed that electrical stimulation
of the prearcuate gyrus causes contraversive eye movements ŽFig. 1A.. This central observation has been repeatedly confirmed w262x. The subsequent use of microelectrodes facilitated the establishment of the exact location
and extent of the FEF. Bruce and Goldberg w30x functionally defined the FEF as the region from which saccadic
eye movements can be evoked with currents of less than
50 mA. This region lies within the rostral bank of the
posterior curve of the arcuate, extending anteriorly over
the lip of the arcuate ‘‘ . . . a few millimeters onto the
surface of the prearcuate gyrus’’ ŽRef. w31x, p. 723., and
posteriorly encroaching a few millimeters into the caudal
bank w84,85,248x. Mediolaterally, it extends about 10 mm,
centered approximately on the arcuate’s midpoint as defined by the intersection of the straight extension of the
principal sulcus with the arcuate ŽFig. 3A.. The overall
area of the FEF, approximately 100 mm2 , is about equal to
the area of the DMFC.
The functionally defined FEF does not correspond to
any of the classical cytoarchitectural regions defined by
anatomists of the 20th century. Brodmann’s area 8 w29x is
close with respect to its medial and lateral extent ŽFig. 3B.,
but is situated too far rostrally, extending anteriorly to the
caudal tip of the principal sulcus and posteriorly only to
the lip of the arcuate sulcus Žas described by Walker
w301x.. The functional FEF therefore overlaps with both
areas 8 and 6 of Brodmann. Walker’s area 8A ŽFig. 3C.
extends 1r2 to 2r3 of the way down from the lip of the
arcuate and hence, like Brodmann’s area 8, also fails to
cover the full caudal extent of the FEF. Laterally, Walker
picked out another region in the arcuate’s rostral bank and
called it area 45 ŽFig. 3C., but how far this extends into
the sulcus was not specified. Thus, in terms of Walker’s
nomenclature, the functional FEF overlaps with areas 8A
and 45 Žand encroaches caudally into Brodmann’s area 6..
von Bonin and Bailey w297x included the medial half of the
arcuate’s rostral bank in their frontal granular region ŽFD.,
but they agreed with Walker that the lateral part differed
and called it FD gamma Žafter the notation of von Economo
and Koskinas w299x; Fig. 3D.. Other investigators have
split the cortex comprising the FEF into even more subfields, upon which we will not elaborate w203,211,295x.
Although the functionally defined FEF does not coincide neatly with traditionally defined cytoarchitectonic regions, it does have a distinct, constant anatomical feature.
Stanton et al. w267x reported that the functionally defined
FEF coincides with a relatively high concentration of large
layer V pyramidal cells in the arcuate’s rostral bank. This
feature is so prominent that Stanton et al. w267x claimed it
to be macroscopically evident in tangential sections through
419
the prearcuate gyrus. The layer V pyramidal cells are
thought to be the major conveyors of oculomotor signals
from the FEF to the superior colliculus and the pons
w247,248,267x.
Does any anatomical characteristic of tissue change
systematically across the FEF? Successive generations of
anatomists have disagreed about which microstructural
changes in the FEF are reliable and important. The following changes are worth noting because they have been
independently confirmed by the majority of anatomists; 4
how they relate to function, however, is unknown. From
rostral FEF Žnear the arcuate lip. to caudal Žnear the
fundus., a moderately thick and granular layer IV tapers
off, becoming almost invisible at the fundus and into the
posterior bank, while radial fascicles become thicker. From
medial FEF to lateral, layer III pyramidal cells get bigger
and the distinct radial and horizontal myelination patterns
that exist in medial FEF become more diffuse.
The FEF makes profuse reciprocal connections w109x
with the lateral intraparietal area, with area 46, with the
contralateral FEF, and with the eye field in the DMFC.
Subcortically, the FEF is reciprocally and heavily connected with the lateral sector of the mediodorsal nucleus of
the thalamus and, to a lesser extent, with thalamic regions
lateral and anterior to this w76,268x. The FEF projects
directly to the superior colliculus and to brainstem regions
fundamental to saccade generation w141x, and the FEF
receives reciprocal input from the superior colliculus via a
disynaptic pathway relayed by the thalamus w153x. The
FEF also projects to the striatum w187,268x; this projection
may be reciprocated through a polysynaptic loop to substantia nigra pars reticulata, thalamus, and back to FEF
w3,153x.
2.2.2. Human FEF
The anatomy of human FEF is an enigma. The most
recent conclusions about the gross location of human FEF
come from experiments using positron emission tomography ŽPET. imaging or functional magnetic resonance
imaging ŽfMRI., and from these studies, it appears that the
human FEF lies within the precentral sulcus w43,148,189x
just caudal to the middle frontal gyrus. The human FEF
seems to be placed surprisingly far back in the frontal
lobe; it is within, or attached to, the precentral motor strip.
In monkeys, by contrast, the FEF is distinctly rostral to the
precentral motor strip. The human and monkey FEF are
dissimilar in terms of their microstructures, as well. In
monkeys, as already noted, a striking characteristic of the
FEF is that, within it, layer IV changes rostrocaudally from
being thick and granular to being nearly non-existent. In
humans, however, the FEF lies entirely in agranular cortex
ŽFig. 4A.. The major thalamic input to monkey FEF is the
4
To our knowledge, modern myelin staining has been performed in
the FEF by only one laboratory w211x. Therefore, our myelination conclusions are based on a single report and one might consider them tentative.
420
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
offered a number of explanations for it w43,148,189x. We
will return to this topic later in the review.
2.3. Summary
Two distinct areas involved in eye-movement control
have been discerned in the frontal lobe, the FEF and the
eye fields in the DMFC. In the monkey, the FEF is located
in a well-defined region of the arcuate sulcus. The FEF
receives extensive projections from area 46, the intraparietal sulcus, the DMFC, and the contralateral FEF; layer V
cells in the FEF project extensively to subcortical centers
including the superior colliculus and the brainstem.
The exact size and location of the eye field in the
DMFC are not as clearly defined as in the FEF. However,
it is evident that the size of cells increases antero-posteriorly in the DMFC and that the projections from the
anterior regions terminate mostly in the brainstem while
those from the posterior regions have projections that
reach the spinal cord. The DMFC innervates regions that
mediate both oculomotor and skeletomotor responses.
The two eye fields have also been identified in the
human. The FEF in the human is located more closely to
the central sulcus than it is in the monkey. The inputs to
these areas and their outputs are less well-known in humans than in monkeys.
Fig. 4. Human FEF. Anterior is to the left and dorsal is to the top.
Ellipses show the approximate locations of human FEF as determined by
imaging studies. ŽA. Basic cytoarchitecture of human frontal lobe. Region
2 is the extent of granular frontal cortex; caudal to that, region 1, in
white, is agranular frontal cortex Žthe granularity of regions caudal to the
central sulcus ŽCS. is not considered.. Imaging studies place the human
FEF in the precentral sulcus ŽPCS., totally in agranular cortex. Derived
from Walker w301x, who based his figure on the human brain study of von
Economo and Koskinas w299x. ŽB. Connections of the human brain with
respect to thalamus. The ‘‘regio frontalis’’ is connected primarily with
the mediodorsal ŽMD. nucleus of the thalamus; the region caudal to that
is connected primarily with the ventrolateral ŽVL. thalamic nucleus.
Modified from Bailey and von Bonin w7x.
mediodorsal nucleus, as noted above. In humans, the general layout of thalamic projections to the cortex has been
estimated w7x by analyzing retrograde degeneration subsequent to prefrontal leucotomy or lobectomy w65,165x and
by extrapolating results from monkeys w300x. According to
this mapping, it is doubtful that the human FEF receives
substantial mediodorsal thalamus input ŽFig. 4B.. Rather,
like its neighbor, the precentral motor strip, the human
FEF appears to receive its primary afferents from more
ventrolaterally located nuclei.
The human FEF, as determined by imaging methods,
therefore, is strikingly different from the monkey FEF.
Imaging investigators recognize this conflict and have
3. Electrical stimulation of the DMFC and the FEF
3.1. Maps and coding schemes in monkeys
In 1969, Robinson and Fuchs w216x showed that electrical stimulation of the FEF elicited fixed-vector saccadic
eye movements such that the size and direction of the
elicited saccades were largely invariant with the initial
position of the eyes in orbit. They also noted an orderly
arrangement of stimulation-elicited saccades in the FEF
Žwhich was first alluded to by the work of Beevor and
Horsley w10x.: in the ventrolateral regions, small-amplitude
saccades were evoked, whereas stimulation of the dorsomedial regions yielded large-amplitude saccades ŽFig. 5A..
Robinson and Fuchs w216x also found that when long trains
of stimulation were delivered to the FEF, a staircase of
saccades was elicited with alternating saccades and fixations, so that each saccade had a similar vector ŽFig. 5B,
right.. Bruce et al. w31x confirmed the FEF’s map of
saccadic amplitudes, and also found that the direction of
saccades varied as a function of the depth of stimulation in
the arcuate sulcus. Numerous other studies have confirmed
these basic findings w6,80,157,229,233,282,284x.
Electrical stimulation of the DMFC yields notably different results from those obtained in the FEF. It has been
known since 1987 w243x that saccades evoked by electrical
stimulation from most sites within the DMFC tend to shift
the center of gaze to a particular location of craniotopic
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Fig. 5. Coding schemes. ŽA. Cranio- and retinocentric coding schemes
described for the DMFC and FEF, respectively, are shown. A side-view
of the macaque monkey brain is depicted. Each box represents the visual
space in front of a monkey with head fixed. The right side of a box
represents contralateral craniotopic space and the left side represents
ipsilateral craniotopic space Ži.e., with respect to the side of stimulation..
The arrows within each box represent saccades starting from different
fixation positions. The top boxes show the types of saccades evoked from
sites situated along the rostrocaudal axis of the DMFC. A shaded circle
represents the termination zone of the saccades evoked from a given site.
The boxes aligned at left show the types of saccades evoked from sites
situated along the mediolateral axis of the FEF. ŽB. Horizontal eye traces
are shown of saccades evoked from the DMFC and FEF. Below each eye
trace is a black bar which represents the onset and duration of electrical
stimulation. ŽTop. When a 400-ms train of stimulation was delivered to
the DMFC, a single saccadic eye movement was evoked and when such a
train of stimulation was delivered to the FEF, a series of saccadic eye
movements was evoked. ŽBottom. When a 70-ms train of stimulation was
delivered to the DMFC or FEF, a single saccadic eye movement was
evoked.
space. This finding has been confirmed by the present
authors laboratory w139,156,264,282,283,285,286x as well
as by others w19,229x. The orbital position reached by the
eye upon stimulation has subsequently been named the
termination zone w282x. The location of a termination zone
corresponds to the location of the fixation fields of neurons
in the stimulated area w19x. Further work revealed that the
DMFC contains an orderly topographic map representing
different termination zones w139,264,282,283,285,286x:
stimulation of rostral sites in the DMFC elicits saccades
that shift the direction of gaze into contralateral craniotopic space, whereas stimulation of caudal sites shifts
gaze into central or ipsilateral craniotopic space ŽFig. 5A
w139x.; stimulation of medial and lateral sites direct the
eyes to lower and upper craniotopic space, respectively.
When the head is displaced with respect to the trunk or
421
when the head is tilted with respect to the vertical axis, the
location of a termination zone remains fixed to the head
w285x. When long trains of stimulation are delivered to the
DMFC, only one saccadic eye movement is typically
produced ŽFig. 5B, left. w229,243,282,284x after which the
eyes remain fixated in the termination zone for the duration of stimulation, thereby inhibiting any subsequent eye
movements w282,283x. These results suggest that the
DMFC, unlike the FEF, contains a craniocentric Žor headcentered. code for the execution of saccadic eye movements.
In conflict with these reports is a study by Russo and
Bruce w222x who found that stimulation in the DMFC
produces saccadic eye movements similar to those found
in the FEF: the size and direction of the saccadic eye
movements did not vary remarkably with respect to the
starting position of the eye. There could be several reasons
for this difference. First, it is possible that area DMFC is
not homogeneous; different subregions may carry different
codes. Second, it is possible that stimulation at certain sites
in the DMFC antidromically activated axon collaterals
from the FEF. Consistent with this hypothesis, our experience has been ŽRef. w264x and unpublished observations.
that fixed vectors can be evoked from the DMFC at about
4% of sites Ž N s 53 penetration., but only within narrowly
defined depths; stimulation a few hundred microns above
or below these sites again yields craniocentric saccades.
Ablation or inactivation of the FEF during stimulation of
the DMFC could test the hypothesis that fixed-vector
saccades elicited from the DMFC occur by virtue of
activating the collaterals of FEF neurons. The third possible reason that Russo and Bruce obtained what look like
fixed-vector saccades is that they used only short-duration
stimulation trains of 70 ms. Under such conditions, the
saccades elicited from the DMFC often do not reach their
full extent w284x. An example of this is shown in Fig. 6,
demonstrating that the amplitude of stimulation-elicited
saccades increases with increasing train duration. In the
experiments of Russo and Bruce, low current levels were
used which may have also contributed to the execution of
truncated saccades. This, however, cannot be the entire
explanation since others have managed to evoke convergent saccades from the DMFC using low currents
w19,229,243x. For more details regarding these issues, see
Schall w230x and Tehovnik w280,281x.
3.2. Electrical stimulation and the behaÕioural state of
monkeys
It has been shown in many experiments that the probability of evoking a saccadic eye movement with electrical
brain stimulation is influenced by the behavioral state of
an animal. Such factors as state of alertness and intent to
fixate or to carry out a specific task can significantly alter
the size, direction, or latency of saccadic eye movements
or affect the current threshold at which saccades are
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
variables. These results, along with the finding that low
currents Že.g. - 50 mA., short train durations Že.g., - 70
ms., and high pulse frequencies Že.g., ) 300 Hz. are more
effective in evoking saccades from the FEF than from the
DMFC, suggest that the FEF, compared to the DMFC, is
more closely connected to the saccade generator in the
brainstem w284,286x.
Fig. 6. Effect of train duration on saccades evoked from the DMFC. The
left hemifield, out to 108, is shown for a monkey. The animal fixated a
target located in central craniotopic space. Electrical stimulation was
delivered to one site in the DMFC to evoke saccades contralateral to the
side of stimulation. The arrows point to the end points of the elicited
saccades when using stimulation trains of 120, 160, and 200 ms. Notice
that the amplitude of the saccades increased systematically with increases
in train duration.
produced w19,69,82,131,157,186,237,253,266x. A recent
examination of the effectiveness of stimulation in the
frontal lobes has shown that the behavioural state of
animals has a much greater effect on saccadic eye movements evoked electrically from the DMFC than from the
FEF w284x. Monkeys were required to fixate a visual target
for 600 ms after which a juice reward was given. Electrical
stimulation was delivered at various times during and after
fixation. When stimulating the DMFC early during the
fixation period, 16 times as much current ŽFig. 7A. was
required to evoke saccades than when current was delivered after termination of the fixation spot ŽFig. 7C.. When
the same manipulations were carried out in the FEF, only
three times as much current ŽFig. 7B. was required to
evoke saccades early during fixation as compared with
stimulation after the fixation spot was turned off ŽFig. 7C..
This finding for the FEF concurs with the results of
Goldberg et al. w82x. The probability of evoking saccades
from the DMFC was also noticeably decreased when the
duration of active fixation was decreased or when the
delivery of juice reward was delayed; stimulation-elicited
saccades from the FEF were much less affected by these
Fig. 7. Current threshold for eliciting saccades on 70% of stimulation
trials is plotted as a function of stimulation onset time for the ŽA. DMFC
and ŽB. FEF. Curves ‘‘a’’ through ‘‘f’’ in ŽA. represent the current
thresholds for evoking saccades from sites in the DMFC, and curves ‘‘a’’
through ‘‘h’’ in ŽB. represent the current thresholds for evoking saccades
from sites in the FEF. Stimulation was delivered 200 ms after the
termination of the fixation spot Ž200 ms., 0 ms after the termination of
the fixation spot Ž0 ms., 200 ms before the termination of the fixation
spot Žy200 ms., or 400 ms before the termination of the fixation spot
Žy400 ms.. The left panel shows the method. The top grey bar represents
the duration of fixation Žfix., which was 600 ms, and the black bars
represent onset and duration of stimulation which was 200 ms. Juice was
delivered immediately after the fixation spot was terminated as long as
the animal remained fixated for the 600 ms. No juice was delivered if the
animal broke fixation during this period, whether the break was self-initiated or stimulation-induced. ŽC. A normalized threshold ratio is plotted
as a function of stimulation onset time for the DMFC and FEF. The ratio
was computed by dividing the mean current required to evoke saccades at
a given stimulation onset time by the mean current required to evoke
saccades at a stimulation onset time of 200 ms. Standard errors are
indicated. Pulse duration and pulse frequency were 0.2 ms and 200 Hz,
respectively. Data from Tehovnik et al. w284x.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
3.3. Skeletomotor responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the DMFC and FEF in monkeys
As indicated earlier, the DMFC, within which the supplementary motor area resides, contains a topographic map
of the body. Stimulation of rostral sites tends to evoke eye
movements, whereas stimulation of caudal sites tends to
evoke hindlimb movements; stimulation of intermediate
sites tends to evoke forelimb movements ŽFig. 2C.. Other
responses that have been evoked from the DMFC include
ear and neck movements, as well as eyelid blinking
w20,243x. In contrast, skeletomotor responses are not readily triggered from the FEF w31,157,216,233,237,239x.
3.4. DMFC and FEF stimulation in humans
It has been known for some time that electrical stimulation delivered to either the DMFC or the FEF in humans
evokes eye movements w60x. Such stimulation of the human DMFC has disclosed a somatotopic map similar to
that observed in the monkey w194,310x. These findings
have recently been replicated w66,78x. Penfield and Welch
w196x found that stimulation of some sites in the DMFC
evoked a contralateral gaze shift that was accompanied by
an arm movement coincident with the change in the direction of gaze Žrepresented by cartoon in supplementary
motor area of Fig. 1D.. These findings suggest that the
DMFC may be involved in hand–eye coordination and that
forelimb and eye have a common termination position that
is laid out in a topographic fashion in this structure w282x.
Penfield and Welch w196x also found that stimulation delivered to the DMFC often inhibited the execution of movements. These findings are in consonance with the already
noted finding that in the monkey, visually evoked saccades
are inhibited when the eyes are already positioned in the
termination zone w282,283x.
3.5. Summary
Saccadic eye movements can be elicited with electrical
stimulation from both the FEF and the DMFC. The nature
of the saccadic eye movements produced, however, is
quite different in the two areas.
In the FEF, the saccadic eye movements elicited have
constant vectors; the amplitude and direction of a saccade
at each site stimulated are largely unaffected by initial eye
position. Prolonged stimulation produces a staircase of
equal-size saccades. There is a clear topographic order in
the FEF, with large amplitude saccades represented in
medial portions and small amplitude saccades represented
in lateral portions of the anterior bank of the arcuate.
In the eye fields of the DMFC, electrical stimulation at
most sites elicits saccadic eye movements that bring the
eyes to a specific orbital position. Prolonged stimulation
holds the eye in place at that position. There is a topographic order in the DMFC eye field area representing
423
different terminal positions. At some sites in this region,
one can also elicit eye movements with constant vectors.
More posteriorly in the DMFC, electrical stimulation can
produce skeletomotor responses. Such responses are somatotopically ordered.
In general, eye movements can be produced more reliably and with lower currents in the FEF than in the
DMFC. This is especially true when an animal is actively
fixating.
4. Lesions and reversible inactivation of the DMFC and
the FEF
4.1. The effects of lesions and reÕersible inactiÕation of the
DMFC in monkeys
Many groups have studied the effect of DMFC lesions
on forelimb movement tasks Že.g., Refs. w25,26,35,147,
188,227,255,288,306x.. In 1984, Brinkman w26x made lesions of various portions of the DMFC confined to the
mesial bank ŽFig. 8A.. The animals were tested on two
tasks. In the first, a unimanual task, monkeys were required to remove small morsels of food embedded in slots
cut into a board. The orientation of each slot was different,
requiring the animal to orient his fingers appropriately to
extract the food item. In the second task, a bimanual one,
monkeys were required to use both hands to obtain the
food morsels. One hand was needed to push the food item
through a slot and the other to grab it. Shortly after
unilateral DMFC lesions, monkeys were impaired on both
of these tasks; they no longer adjusted the orientation of
their hands to extract the food in the unimanual task. Both
hands showed impairment. On the unimanual task, the
deficit disappeared after 2 weeks. In contrast, the poor
performance on the bimanual task persisted even 1 year
after the lesion.
Lucchetti et al. w147x found that following a lesion of
the DMFC that included anterio-lateral regions ŽFig. 8B., a
monkey was impaired at reaching toward visual objects
presented in contralateral space. This deficit subsided after
1 month, however.
In another set of experiments, Thaler et al. w288x and
Chen et al. w35x made bilateral lesions of the DMFC that
included both the mesial and lateral regions of the area
ŽFig. 8C.. Monkeys were trained on several tasks. In the
first, they had to displace one lever at the onset of a visual
stimulus and then displace another lever upon the termination of the stimulus. In the second task, monkeys were
trained to delay the movement of a joystick by having
them activate the joystick 5–8 s after the onset of a visual
stimulus. In the third task, the animals had to shift the
joystick to the left and then forward after the visual
stimulus appeared. In the fourth task, reversal learning was
assessed by making reward contingent on repeatedly pressing the joystick to the left and then, after 27 trials, to the
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Fig. 8. DMFC lesions in monkeys. The method of Tehovnik w280x was
used to determine the size and location of DMFC lesions across various
studies. The rostrocaudal and mediolateral extents of a lesion were
determined in millimeters and the location of a lesion was determined
with respect to the cerebral midline ŽMl. and posterior tip of the arcuate
sulcus ŽPa.. In each panel, the tick marks along the midline axis are
spaced by 1 mm. ŽA. The overlapped rectangles show the location of the
chronic lesions of monkeys used in the study of Brinkman w26x: monkeys
SMX1, SMX2, M6, M7, M9. Lesions were all unilateral. ŽB. The
rectangle shows the extent and location a chronic lesion of a monkey
used by Lucchetti et al. w147x. The lesion was unilateral. ŽC. The
overlapped rectangles show the location of the chronic lesions of monkeys used in the study of Thaler et al. w288x and Chen et al. w35x: monkeys
62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 83, 84, 85. Lesions were bilateral. ŽD. The shaded
rectangles represent the sites injected with muscimol in monkeys BT and
PS of Shima and Tanji w255x. The dotted rectangle represents the maximal
spread of the muscimol which was estimated to be 2.0 mm from the
cannula tip w255x. All injections were bilateral. ŽE. The rectangle represents the location and size of a cooling probe used in the study of Sasaki
and Gemba w227x. Cooling probes were situated bilaterally. ŽF. The
shaded rectangles represent the sites injected with lidocaine in the study
of Sommer and Tehovnik w264x. The anterior-most rectangle represents
the injection sites of Monkey L and the posterior-most rectangle represents the injection sites of Monkey I. The dotted rectangle represents the
maximal spread of the lidocaine. Each injection was estimated to spread
1.5 mm from the cannula tip w287x. All injections were unilateral. ŽG. The
rectangle shows the extent and location of a typical chronic lesion in the
study of Schiller and Chou w234x: monkey 3. Lesions were typically
unilateral.
right; the number of trials required for successful reversal
was assessed. Damage to the DMFC had little effect on the
performance of these tasks. The last two tasks did show a
minor deficit, but continued training rapidly reinstated
pre-operative performance. One additional task was used
in which monkeys were required to break a photobeam
with their forelimbs in order to obtain a reward. The
animals were exposed to this task for 30 minrday. On this
task, 3 weeks after a DMFC lesion, monkeys were still
deficient. However, due to limited testing Žonly four occasions., these results are difficult to evaluate.
Using reversible inactivation methods, Shima and Tanji
w255x showed that the learning of a sequential task, which
required animals to move a manipulandum to successive
positions Žby a push, pull, or turn., was disrupted when
muscimol was injected bilaterally into various regions of
the DMFC ŽFig. 8D.. The severity of the deficit decreased
with the repetition of a particular sequence, however.
When the monkeys were required to execute the movements in the presence of visual cues, no deficit was
observed following inactivation.
In another reversible inactivation experiment in which a
large portion of the DMFC was cooled both unilaterally
and bilaterally ŽFig. 8E., Sasaki and Gemba w227x showed
that performance was disrupted on a task that required the
lifting of a lever when a visual stimulus appeared. They
found that the latency with which the animals lifted the
lever upon the appearance of the visual stimulus increased
when tissue was cooled. The effect, however, was transitory; after 2 months of continued testing, the response
latencies were no longer affected by cooling. When a
similar experiment was performed on the motor cortex, the
disruptive effect of cooling on lever lifting never faded
w226x. Corroborating the amelioration of deficits with repeated cooling is a study by Miyashita et al. w168x, who
have shown that after extensive training, inactivation of the
DMFC becomes ineffective.
Only a few studies have examined the effects of DMFC
inactivation and lesions on oculomotor responses. Since
these studies compared directly the effects of DMFC and
FEF lesions or inactivation, they will be considered in a
separate section below.
4.2. The effects of lesions and reÕersible inactiÕation of the
FEF in monkeys
The effects of FEF ablations and inactivation have been
extensively studied. Investigators who have examined the
execution of saccadic eye movements to singly appearing
stationary visual targets report that after FEF ablation or
inactivation, the deficits are moderate. There is a small
decrease in saccadic velocities and an increase in saccadic
latencies; this has been reported both with lesions and with
reversible inactivation using lidocaine or muscimol w52,
54,234,238,240,263x. After FEF ablation, there is relatively
rapid recovery in both saccadic velocities and saccadic
latencies. Time for recovery is longer for saccades made to
visual targets appearing at relatively large eccentricities
Ž108–208. w235,236x. Reversible inactivation studies also
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
show that monkeys have difficulty in acquiring targets that
appear beyond 158 of eccentricity from straight ahead and
to then maintain fixation on them w263x. This deficit has its
counterpart in the fact that there is a decrease in saccadic
amplitude that is especially notable for large saccades
following FEF ablations. These deficits recover at about
the same rate as does the deficit in saccadic latency
w235,236x.
In contrast to the relatively mild and short-lasting
deficits in the latency and amplitude of saccades made to
visual targets and in maintained fixation, ablation or inactivation of the FEF ŽFigs. 9 and 10A,B,C,D. dramatically
affects the execution of single saccades generated to remembered target positions. FEF lesions ŽFig. 10A,B,E.
also interfere with two successive saccades made in response to two successively presented targets. Deficits in
generating such ‘‘memory-guided saccades’’ persist even 4
months after an FEF ablation ŽFig. 10C..
The effects of FEF lesions ŽFig. 10F. on the execution
of smooth pursuit eye movements elicited by moving
targets have also been examined. Deficits in pursuit have
been reported both with lesions and inactivation w152,251x.
Pursuit deficits typically occur for targets moving in a
direction ipsilateral to the side of the lesion. Deficits in
pursuit are still apparent beyond 10 weeks after an FEF
ablation w120x. To obtain clear deficits in visually guided
pursuit, the deeper portions of the arcuate, including the
fundus and portions of the posterior bank, must be ablated
or inactivated w154x. The deficits in pursuit so obtained are
in consonance with two related findings w84,85,154x: Ž1.
there are neurons in the depth of arcuate sulcus, including
Fig. 9. Size and location of FEF lesions in monkeys. ŽA. The size and
location of an FEF lesion were determined by noting the extent of a
lesion with respect to the superior ŽAs. and inferior ŽAi. limbs of the
arcuate and with respect to an axis originating at the posterior tip of the
arcuate ŽPa. and extending anteriorly toward the principle sulcus ŽPs..
The anterior Žant. and posterior Žpost. portions of the arcuate sulcus are
also shown so that the depth of the lesion into each bank can be assessed.
The shaded area is a hypothetical FEF lesion. ŽB. The length of each axis
Ž Y, X, and Z . was set to 1. For the hypothetical lesion shown in ‘‘A’’,
the length of the Y vector is 0.7, the X vector is 0.6, and the Z vector is
0.4. ŽC. By joining the endpoints of each vector Ždotted line in B. in
combination with the borders of the lesion into the anterior and posterior
bank, the size and location of an FEF lesion are described.
425
Fig. 10. FEF lesions in monkeys. The size and location of FEF lesions are
shown for various studies investigating oculomotor and skeletomotor
behaviour. The shaded area represents the lidocaine injection sites of ŽA.
Monkey L and ŽB. Monkey I in Sommer and Tehovnik w263,264x. The
dotted area represents the maximal effective spread of lidocaine. Each
injection was estimated to spread 1.5 mm from the cannula tip w287x. All
injections were unilateral. ŽC. The shaded area represents the extent of
the chronic lesion in the monkey used by Deng et al. w52x. The lesion was
unilateral. ŽD. The shaded area represents the chronic lesion of a monkey
used by Funahashi et al. w70x: monkey YM. The lesion was unilateral. ŽE.
The shaded area represents a typical chronic lesion in the study of
Schiller and Chou w234x: monkey 3. The lesions were usually unilateral.
ŽF. The overlapped dotted regions show the location of chronic lesions of
monkeys used in various studies: Keating w120x: monkeys Big1, Big2,
SML; Keating w121x: monkey S1, S2, S3; Keating et al. w122x: monkey 3;
Lynch w152x: monkey R5; MacAvoy et al. w154x: monkey 420. ŽG. The
shaded area represents the chronic lesion of a monkey used by Schiller et
al. w240x: monkey Bn. The lesion was bilateral. ŽH. The overlapped dotted
regions show the location of chronic lesions of monkeys used by van der
Steen et al. w291x: monkeys F1, F2, F3. Lesions were unilateral. ŽI. The
overlapped dotted regions show the location of chronic lesions of monkeys used by Halsband and Passingham w95x: monkeys FEF33, FEF34.
Lesions were bilateral. For other details, see Fig. 9.
the fundus, that are modulated during smooth pursuit; and
Ž2. electrical stimulation of this region evokes smooth
pursuit eye movements.
A number of studies have also investigated the effect of
FEF ablations on visually guided forelimb movements
w46,95,214,240,291x. Schiller et al. w240x trained monkeys
to pick apple pieces from slots imbedded in a board. The
slots in the board spanned 608 = 608 of visual space.
Immediately after a bilateral FEF lesion ŽFig. 10G., monkeys were impaired at retrieving apple pieces from the
board; complete recovery was evident by the fourth postoperative week. van der Steen et al. w291x trained monkeys
to press, within 1 s following its illumination, a button
which was presented at one of 19 positions spaced at 58
intervals over a horizontal 908 arc in front of an animal.
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Two days after a unilateral FEF lesion ŽFig. 10H., monkeys failed to push the illuminated target that appeared
anywhere contralateral to the side of the lesion. Thirty-five
days after the lesion, monkeys were still impaired at
contralateral locations beyond 308. Monkeys had difficulties in making large gaze shifts which were compensated
by the animals making head movements of increased
amplitude.
In another set of experiments, Halsband and Passingham w95x trained monkeys on a conditional motor task. The
animals had to push a sphere when a green light came on
and a cube when the light turned orange. The position of
the sphere and the cube was randomized. Following bilateral lesions of the FEF ŽFig. 10I., monkeys did very poorly
and failed to relearn the task; they were exposed to 3500
trials over a 3-month period. Unoperated controls mastered
the task within 1 month and 1200 trials.
4.3. Direct comparison of DMFC and FEF lesions and
inactiÕation on Õisually guided eye moÕements
Only two sets of experiments have compared the effects
on eye movements of lesions or reversible inactivation of
the DMFC and FEF in monkeys. In the first set of
experiments, the DMFC or FEF was reversibly inactivated
with lidocaine or muscimol ŽFigs. 8F and 10A,B w263,264x.
while monkeys performed various eye movements. Inactivation of the DMFC did not interfere with the ability to
fixate visual targets in different parts of visual space or to
execute saccadic eye movements to single visual targets or
to remembered target locations w264x. However, inactivation of the FEF, as already noted, had dramatic effects on
these tasks; the most pronounced deficits were obtained
under conditions when animals had to make saccadic eye
movements to remembered target locations w263x. When
monkeys were required to generate a sequence of two
saccades to two remembered targets, both DMFC and FEF
inactivation produced deficits w263,264x. Monkeys were
often unable to generate saccades to either the first or the
second target. The magnitude of the impairment was much
greater after FEF inactivation than it was after DMFC
inactivation.
The second set of experiments compared eye-movement
performance after FEF and DMFC ablations w234x and
reported similar deficits to those found during reversible
inactivation. DMFC lesions produced a mild impairment
that recovered within weeks on the execution of successive
saccadic eye movements made to sequentially presented
targets. FEF lesions, on the other hand, produced a much
more dramatic deficit on this task that lasted even after 2
years of continued testing. The areas lesioned are depicted
in Figs. 8G and 10E.
In addition to these tasks, the study comparing FEF and
DMFC lesions used a test in which two identical targets
were presented, with one appearing in each hemifield
w234x. Monkeys were rewarded for choosing either target.
This task was similar to the one used in clinical studies
that explore the extinction phenomenon w46,124,147,214,
291,304x. In addition to having the targets appear simultaneously, they were also presented with various temporal
onset asynchronies. This enabled the investigators to determine how choice of the targets shifted as a function of the
temporal offset between them. In normal animals, the
equal probability point at which the frequency of left and
right target choices was similar occurred close to the time
when they appeared simultaneously. However, after a unilateral DMFC or FEF lesion, a major shift arose in choice
preference. The temporal shift was much greater and
longer-lasting after an FEF lesion than after a DMFC
lesion. To get equal probability choices for the left and
right targets, a temporal asynchrony of more than 110 ms
had to be introduced 2 weeks after removal of the FEF,
with the target in the hemifield contralateral to the lesion
having to appear first. The temporal offset for equal probability choice 2 weeks after a DMFC lesion was only 31
ms. Recovery, after the DMFC lesion, was complete after
4 months; after FEF lesions, even a year later, more than a
60-ms offset was necessary for equal probability choice.
Fig. 11 shows data on this task.
Fig. 11. Target selection. Data obtained from two monkeys are shown as obtained with paired targets presented with varied temporal asynchronies. Plotted
is the percent of saccades made to the left target as a function of temporal offset between the paired targets. Data are shown at various times after recovery
from a left FEF ŽLFEF. or right DMFC ŽRDMFC. lesion as well as pre-operatively Žpre-op.. Squares and solid lines depict data from the animal with the
FEF lesion; circles and dotted lines depict data from the animal with the DMFC lesion. Records of saccadic eye movements made to paired targets with
various temporal offsets in the intact animal appear as an inset. For each of the post-operative weeks plotted Žwk2–wk16., data were collected for five or
six successive days. Data from Schiller and Chou w234x.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
One interpretation of these effects after unilateral ablation is that the lesions affect temporal discrimination during target selection. To test this, monkeys were trained to
discriminate temporal differences in target onset w234x;
they had to select the target in an array that came on
various times prior to the other similar stimuli. The animals were rewarded only for making a saccadic eye movement to the target that had appeared first. This task revealed major deficits in making temporal discriminations
after FEF lesions and mild but significant deficits after
DMFC lesions. Thus, one major effect of FEF lesions, and
to a lesser extent of DMFC lesions, is to impair temporal
discrimination.
One animal in this study was also examined after both
the DMFC and the FEF had been removed. The deficits
after such paired lesions were of about the same magnitude
as single lesions to the FEF w235,236x. These lesions did
not produce any deficits in smooth pursuit eye movements,
probably because the FEF lesion did not include damage to
the fundus and posterior bank of the arcuate.
4.4. The effects of DMFC and FEF damage in humans
4.4.1. Deficits on oculomotor tasks
Effects of frontal lobe damage on the oculomotor behaviour of humans have been studied widely Že.g., Refs.
w24,73,74,93,100,170,190,205–207,213x.. Unfortunately,
the brain damage in such patients is usually not restricted
to the FEF or DMFC; it often includes damage to several
other regions. In considering the effects of damage to the
DMFC and FEF, we focused on results obtained from
patients whose lesions did not extend well beyond either
the FEF or DMFC ŽFig. 12.. In the human, the FEF is
generally considered to be in or near the precentral sulcus
Že.g., Ref. w189x. and the DMFC straddles the midline with
significant overlap into the mesial bank. Most of our FEF
cases included damage to regions rostral to, but also
including, the precentral sulcus. The findings may be
summarized as follows.
Ž1. Patients with lesions of either the FEF or DMFC
could generate saccades as well as normal subjects to
visual targets. The lesions are depicted in Fig. 13A.
Ž2. Patients with a unilateral FEF lesion ŽFig. 13B, left.
trained to make saccades to remembered target positions in
total darkness Žtypically a 2-s delay. generated hypometric
saccades to targets appearing contralateral to the side of
the lesion; saccade reaction times were much longer than
those exhibited by normal subjects. In contrast, DMFC
patients ŽFig. 13B, right. were not at all impaired on this
task.
Ž3. Patients with a unilateral FEF lesion ŽFig. 13C, left.
trained to generate saccades to a remembered target position in total darkness after head and body rotation showed
no impairment. Similar tests after DMFC lesions ŽFig.
13C, right. revealed that patients undershot the location of
427
Fig. 12. Size and location of DMFC or FEF lesions in humans. Shown is
a diagrammatic horizontal slice through the top portion of one hemisphere of the human cerebral cortex. To determine the location and size
of a lesion centered on the dorsomedial frontal cortex ŽDMFC. or frontal
eye field ŽFEF., the length and width of the cerebral cortex were set to
1.0. According to this scheme, the DMFC is situated between 0.5 and 0.8
units along the length dimension and between 0.0 and 0.3 units along the
width dimension; the FEF is situated between 0.5 and 0.75 units along the
length dimension and between 0.5 and 0.9 units along the width dimension. In Figs. 13 and 14, this measuring scheme was used to determine
the borders and location of lesions confined to the FEF and DMFC of
various studies. The prefrontal cortex ŽPFC., superior frontal sulcus
ŽSFs., precentral sulcus ŽPCs., central sulcus ŽCs., and intraparietal sulcus
ŽIPs. are indicated.
the remembered target position for targets appearing both
in the hemifield ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion.
Ž4. One patient with a unilateral FEF lesion ŽFig. 13D,
left. showed deficits in making successive saccades to two
remembered target positions in total darkness; on 20% of
trials, saccades were executed in the wrong order. Another
patient with a DMFC lesion tested in a similar manner
showed error rates of less than 10%; this performance was
comparable to that of normal control subjects ŽRef. w73x,
case 1..
Ž5. Three of five DMFC patients ŽFig. 13D, right. tested
on a three-target task failed to successfully generate saccades to the remembered target positions in the same order
the targets were presented. These three patients were tested
between 26 and 54 days following the lesion. Two of the
five patients, tested between 38 and 84 days, did not
exhibit any deficits.
Ž6. Patients with unilateral FEF ŽFig. 13E, left. or
DMFC ŽFig. 13E, right. lesion trained to generate ‘‘antisaccades’’ that forced them to shift their gaze into the
hemifield opposite to where the target had appeared, performed on the task as well as did normal subjects. However, in patients with infarcts that included the prefrontal
cortex, a significant deficit was observed on this task
w207x.
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Fig. 13. DMFC or FEF lesions in humans performing oculomotor tasks.
Shown are horizontal slices through the cerebral cortex. Within each
slice, the grey area represents the size and location of many lesions
combined from different patients. ŽA. Left plate shows lesions confined
to the FEF of 19 patients from Braun et al. w24x Žcases 1 to 6.,
Pierrot-Deseilligny et al. w207x Žcases 1 to 10., and Rivaud et al. w213x
Žcases 1 to 3.. Right plate shows lesions confined to the DMFC of 13
patients from Braun et al. w24x Žcases 13 to 15., Gaymard et al. w73x Žcases
1., and Pierrot-Deseilligny et al. w207x Žcases 1 to 9.. ŽB. Left plate shows
lesions confined to the FEF of eight patients from Pierrot-Deseilligny et
al. w205x Žcases 1 to 5. and Rivaud et al. w213x Žcases 1 to 3.. Right plate
shows lesions confined to the DMFC of seven patients from Gaymard et
al. w74x Žcases 1, 3, 4, and 5. and Pierrot-Deseilligny et al. w206x Žcases 1
to 3, with right-sided lesion.. ŽC. Left plate shows lesions confined to the
FEF of five patients from Pierrot-Deseilligny et al. w205x Žcases 1 to 5..
Right plate shows lesions confined to the DMFC of three patients of
Pierrot-Deseilligny et al. w205x Žcases 1 to 3.. ŽD. Left plate shows lesions
confined to the FEF of one patient from Rivaud et al. w213x Žcase not
specified.. Right plate shows lesions confined to the DMFC of five
patients from Gaymard et al. w73x Žcase 1. and Gaymard et al. w74x Žcases
1, 3, 4, and 5.. ŽE. Left plate shows lesions confined to the FEF of 13
patients from Pierrot-Deseilligny et al. w207x Žcases 1 to 10. and Rivaud et
al. w213x Žcases 1 to 3.. Right plate shows lesions confined to the DMFC
of 10 patients from Gaymard et al. w73x Žcase 1. and Pierrot-Deseilligny et
al. w207x Žcases 1 to 9.. ŽF. The plate shows lesions confined to the FEF
of six patients from Morrow et al. w170x Žcases 1 to 3. and Rivaud et al.
w213x Žcases 1 to 3.. See Fig. 12 for other details.
mally, under such conditions after the hand releases the
load, the forelimb exhibits a slight flexion response. After
a DMFC patient’s hand released the load, a larger flexion
response than normal was observed, suggesting that the
DMFC in humans is involved in bimanual postural adjustments.
Halsband and Freund w94x trained patients with frontal
lobe damage on a task wherein a particular visual stimulus
had to be associated with a specific forelimb movement.
At the onset of a stimulus, a patient was required to
produce a correct movement Že.g., after stimulus onset, a
patient had to put the right hand on the right shoulder
unfolding it through about 908 downward.. Of the patients
studied, two had lesions confined to the DMFC ŽFig. 14B.
and one had a lesion confined to the FEF ŽFig. 14C.. All
the patients had a deficit in learning the association task
but had no difficulty imitating forelimb movements by
visual example or from memory; nor did they have problems in evoking visually guided reaching movements toward different positions in visual space.
4.5. Summary
The nature of deficits induced by ablation of the DMFC
and FEF is quite different both in kind and in magnitude.
After DMFC lesions, deficits are common both in limb and
eye movement control with the latter quite mild, whereas
after FEF lesions, there are no deficits in limb movements
but impairment in some aspects of eye-movement control
are sizeable and long-lasting. Such sizeable and long-lasting deficits following FEF ablation have been observed for
the selection of two simultaneously presented targets, for
the execution of sequences of eye movements to successive targets, and for eye movements made to briefly presented stimuli. DMFC lesions produced only mild deficits
on these tasks that recovered within a few months. Lesions
of the posterior bank and fundus of the arcuate, but not of
the DMFC, produce deficits in pursuit eye movements.
The impairment observed in limb movements after DMFC
lesions is most pronounced when a bimanual task is employed. The deficits documented in the FEF and DMFC
Ž7. Patients with unilateral FEF lesions ŽFig. 13F. tested
on smooth pursuit were all impaired for ipsilaterally directed motion relative to the lesion but not for contralaterally directed motion.
4.4.2. Deficits on forelimb moÕement tasks
Few studies have looked at the effect of DMFC or FEF
damage on the execution of forelimb movements in patients Že.g., Refs. w94,293x.. Viallet et al. w293x trained
patients with DMFC lesions ŽFig. 14A. on a bimanual
forelimb movement task. At the onset of a tone burst,
patients were required to remove a weight from the forelimb contralateral to the lesion with the other hand. Nor-
Fig. 14. DMFC or FEF lesions in humans performing skeletomotor tasks.
Shown are horizontal slices through the cerebral cortex. Within each
slice, the grey area represents the size and location of many lesions
combined from different patients. ŽA. Lesions confined to the DMFC of
four patients from Viallet et al. w293x Žcases 1, 3, 4, and 5.. ŽB. Lesions
confined to the DMFC of two patients from Halsband and Freund w94x
Žcases 1 and 9.. ŽC. Lesion confined to the FEF of one patient from
Halsband and Freund w94x Žcase 5.. See Fig. 12 for other details.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
429
upon reversible inactivation are similar to those found with
lesions. Human studies for the most part are consistent
with the findings reported in monkeys: lesions of the FEF
or DMFC do not disrupt visually guided saccades; lesions
of the FEF, but not the DMFC, impair saccades made to
one remembered target position; lesions of the FEF or
DMFC affect saccades generated to two or more remembered target positions; lesions of the FEF interfere with
smooth pursuit eye movements; and finally, lesions of the
DMFC disrupt bimanual movements.
5. Single-cell recordings in the DMFC and FEF
5.1. The characteristics of single neurons in the DMFC
5.1.1. Eye and forelimb moÕements
Accumulating evidence suggests that neurons throughout the full extent of the DMFC are modulated by forelimb
movements ŽFig. 15A.. Limb movements that are associated with neuronal activity include the displacement of a
manipulandum, reaching toward and pressing buttons, and
wrist extension or flexion. Unfortunately, many studies
examining limb movements have not recorded and studied
the eye movements that are an integral part of coordinated
limb movements. Since Schlag and Schlag-Rey w242x have
shown that the anterior DMFC Žanterior to the posterior tip
of the arcuate. contains neurons that respond in association
with eye movements, it is possible that the neuronal responses interpreted to occur with limb movements may be,
at least in part, due to eye movements or the combined
action involved in hand–eye coordination ŽFig. 15B..
Cells that respond in association with eye movements
typically have been shown to be located in anterior DMFC,
but a few studies have found such cells further back, in
regions a few millimeters caudal to the posterior tip of the
arcuate ŽFig. 15B.. Some studies have measured both eye
and forelimb movements while recording from the DMFC
w18–20,156,173,228x. Of these, only Mushiake et al. w173x
have dissociated the contribution of eye movement from
the contribution of forelimb movement. In this study, a
monkey was trained to reach to and look at a visual target.
Units were examined under three conditions: Ž1. execution
of eye movements in the absence of limb movements; Ž2.
execution of limb movements in the absence of eye movements; and Ž3. execution of both movements together. Of
12 cells studied in anterior DMFC, all exhibited their best
response when the eyes and forelimb movements occurred
together. Chou and Schiller w37,38x used a paradigm similar to that of Mushiake et al. w173x while recording from
hundreds of units located within the full rostrocaudal
extent of the DMFC. They found that the vast majority of
cells responded under the above noted three conditions,
albeit to different degrees. These findings suggest that
most neurons in this area are not dedicated to the execu-
Fig. 15. Location of unit recording sites in monkeys. ŽA. Top view of one
side of the DMFC showing regions from which units were recorded by
investigators who studied monkeys as they performed a forelimb movement task. The cerebral midline is represented by the horizontal line.
Each tick mark on this line is spaced by 1 mm. The arcuate sulcus ŽAs.
and central sulcus ŽCs. are indicated. The posterior tip of the arcuate
sulcus ŽPa. is shown. Each oval represents the size and location of the
region from which units modulated by a given forelimb movement task
were found. The length and width of an oval and its center were
determined using the method of Tehovnik w280x. Studies pertaining to a
particular recording zone are listed. ŽAlso see Ref. w130x.. ŽB. Top view
of one side of the DMFC showing regions from which units were
recorded by investigators who studied monkeys as they performed an
oculomotor task.
tion of a single, specific motor act. These neurons may in
fact be involved in hand–eye coordination.
5.1.2. Eye moÕements
Neurons within the DMFC are modulated by saccadic
and pursuit eye movements w19,101,105,139,156,223,
228,241–243x and discharge during the presentation of
visual stimuli w223,228,243x. A large proportion of cells
within the anterior DMFC also respond vigorously when
the animal engages in active fixation w17,19,21,139,180,
244x. Neurons at rostral sites respond best when the center
of gaze is directed toward contralateral craniotopic space,
whereas neurons at caudal sites respond best when gaze is
directed toward ipsilateral craniotopic space w139x. At lat-
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
eral sites, responses are best for upward gaze and at medial
sites, for downward gaze. Recently, the rostrocaudal topographic order has been alluded to by the work of Bon and
Lucchetti w21x. Here, a monkey was required to remain
fixated and to displace a lever to detect the color change of
a peripherally located visual target. Cells in rostral DMFC
tended to respond to such target changes occurring in
contralateral craniotopic space, whereas cells in caudal
DMFC tended to respond to such changes occurring in
ipsilateral craniotopic space. A population of neurons in
rostral DMFC also seems to be modulated differentially
according to what side of an object a monkey generates an
eye movement w180,181x. Thus, DMFC neurons, especially
those in anterior DMFC, discharge during saccadic eye
movements, during smooth pursuit eye movements, during
active fixation, and during the onset of visual stimuli. The
region contains a topographic map for the representation of
various gaze positions.
5.1.3. Anterior Õs. posterior DMFC
Considerable evidence has been presented suggesting
that the anterior and posterior regions of the DMFC are
functionally distinct w69,161,162,173,254,274,277,279x.
Matsuzaka et al. w161x found that neurons in the anterior
DMFC are modulated differently from neurons in the
posterior DMFC. In their experiment, monkeys faced a
panel containing two switches. A light over either the left
or right switch was illuminated briefly. A visual trigger
then signalled the monkey to press the illuminated switch.
Compared to cells in the anterior DMFC, cells located
more caudally discharged best immediately before, during,
and after the execution of the forelimb movement. In
contrast, cells in anterior DMFC were more vigorously
modulated when the light was on as well as during the
period between the termination of the light and the onset
of the target that triggered the forelimb movement. That
cells in anterior DMFC are more readily modulated by
visual stimuli and respond less at the time of the forelimb
movement should not be surprising, since the region contains many cells that discharge to the presentation of visual
stimuli w223,228,243x. When tactile rather than visual stimuli were used to initiate forelimb movement, no difference
was observed in the modulation of cells in anterior and
posterior DMFC w220x. Thus, to reveal a difference between the anterior and posterior regions of the DMFC, a
visual task must be employed.
Tanji and Shima w279x found that 54 out of 206 units
located in posterior DMFC were modulated by a specific
sequence of three movements Žpush–pull–turn. of a manipulandum guided by visual memory. Mushiake et al.
w174x found that a small proportion of cells Ž21r328.
located throughout the DMFC was modulated by a specific
sequence of button presses. With the push–pull–turn
paradigm of Tanji and Shima w279x, a larger proportion of
cells in anterior DMFC Ž64r251., as compared to posterior
DMFC Ž6r385., exhibited a diminution of responsivity
during the continued execution of a movement sequence
under visual guidance w254x. At this time, it is not known
whether the sequencing-specific properties of cells in posterior DMFC would also diminish after prolonged task
repetition. This question arises because it has been demonstrated that cells in posterior DMFC become quite unresponsive after overtraining on a simple key-press task w1x.
One of the problems with the studies just described is
that in none of them were eye movements under continuous measurement. This is of concern because the pattern of
saccadic eye movements changes when animals learn a
task that requires forelimb movements w167x. Another
problem is that these studies have not mapped the receptive fields 5 or fixation fields of neurons before they were
tested on any sequencing task. Issues of overtraining, eye
movement control, and visual receptive field characteristics will need to be addressed before one can fully accept
claims that go beyond anterior DMFC having a visual bias
and posterior DMFC having a skeletomotor bias w161,162x.
5.2. The characteristics of single neurons in the FEF
In 1968, Bizzi w14x found that neurons in the FEF
respond during fixation and during and after the execution
of saccadic eye movements. Subsequently, it was shown
that cells in FEF also discharge in response to visual
stimuli and before saccadic eye movements w15,30,
81,169,271x. Some cells in this region are also responsive
during active fixation w270x. In addition, cells have been
discovered in deeper portions of the bank of the arcuate
that are modulated during ipsilaterally directed pursuit
w154x. Finally, the FEF appears to be topographically organized such that neurons in dorsomedial sites discharge best
for large-amplitude saccades, whereas neurons in ventrolateral sites discharge best for small-amplitude saccades
w31x.
Identifying neurons by antidromic activation, Segraves
and Goldberg w248x described the basic properties of FEF
cells that project to the superior colliculus. Using similar
methods, Segraves w247x also characterized the FEF neurons that project to the pons. Both projections were found
to relay primarily saccadic and fixation-related discharges,
and they rarely had only visual responses. Recently, Sommer and Wurtz w265x presented the first description of FEF
neurons that may receive input from the superior colliculus. Some FEF neurons could be activated via synapses by
electrical stimulation in the superior colliculus, presumably
driven via a tectothalamocortical route w153x. These FEF
input neurons all had visual responses, and half had presaccadic bursts as well. Taken together with the results of
5
Tolias et al. w290x describes a method to map the entire receptive
field of cortical cells within the context of the behavioural paradigm, a
method that could be employed when studying sequencing behaviour in
visual areas.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Segraves and Goldberg w248x, this provides the first evidence that FEF receives visual signals at its input and
produces saccade commands at its output Žas predicted by
Bruce and Goldberg w30x..
Segraves and Park w249x determined that movement-related presaccadic FEF neurons begin their discharge approximately 150 ms before saccadic onset and show peak
activity approximately 13 ms before the onset of the
saccade. These neurons can have multiple phases of activity: prelude activation and a burst that occurs later. Hanes
et al. w96x performed an analysis of activity in the FEF and
DMFC to determine the onset time of neural activity. For
presaccadic neurons in both the FEF and DMFC, the onset
time of the burst was more tightly coupled to the beginning of the saccade, as opposed to the time that the
instructional trigger signal was presented. On average, FEF
neurons began bursting 28 ms ŽS.D.s 3.3 ms. before
saccades. Presaccadic neurons in the DMFC, on the other
hand, started to burst earlier than FEF neurons, and they
showed greater variance in burst time Žmean s 135,
S.D.s 6.6 ms.. Also the prelude activity in the DMFC
occurred earlier and with a greater variance in onset time
than it did in the FEF.
Lee w138x trained monkeys to generate saccades to
visual targets presented within a region of 608 = 408 of
visual space. The monkeys were required to maintain
fixation for 1000 ms after which they generated a saccade
to a randomly selected target position. It was found that a
higher percentage of cells in the DMFC than FEF was
modulated during active fixation but that a higher percentage of cells in the FEF than DMFC was modulated during
saccade execution. Also unlike cells in the DMFC that are
modulated during both eye and forelimb movements w18,
37,38,156,173x, cells in the FEF are modulated exclusively
during eye movements w173x.
431
5.3. Summary
Neuronal responses associated with eye and limb movements are common in the DMFC and many single cells
respond to both, indicating that these cells do not mediate
a specific motor act. Cells in anterior portions of the
DMFC tend to be more responsive to visual stimuli and
the execution of saccadic eye movements whereas in posterior regions, cells are more responsive to limb movements. Cells that discharge during fixation and smooth
pursuit eye movements have also been reported.
Fig. 16. Imaging studies and the DMFC and FEF. ŽA. Shown is a top
view of the human cerebral cortex. The box depicts the region from
which studies located maximal-activity points measured with PET or
fMRI while subjects executed saccadic eye movements or smooth pursuit
eye movements. The approximate location of the DMFC and FEF is
represented by the ellipses. The central sulcus ŽCs., precentral sulcus
ŽPCs., and superior frontal sulcus ŽSFs. are indicated. ŽB. The graph
shows the location of maximal-activity points in Brodmann’s area 6
observed with PET or fMRI while human subjects performed tasks
involving the generation of saccadic or smooth pursuit eye movements.
Each dot within the figure represents a maximal-activity point plotted in
Talairach and Tournoux w273x coordinates along the caudorostral and
mediolateral axes. A dot is based on an average from 5 to 12 subjects.
The subtraction method was used to determine a maximal-activity point.
Typically, the baseline behaviour used for the subtraction method was
fixation of a visual target, or resting with eyes open or closed. Data were
obtained from the following studies: Anderson et al. w4x, Doricchi et al.
w55x, Kawashima et al. w119x, Luna et al. w148x, O’Driscoll et al. w178x,
Paus et al. w191,192x, Petit et al. w197,198x, and Sweeney et al. w272x. The
ellipses represent the distribution of maximal-activity points along the
caudorostral and mediolateral axes. The DMFC and FEF were divided
according Paus w189x and Roland and Zilles w219x. ŽC. The graph shows
the location of maximal-activity points in the DMFC of Brodmann’s area
6 while human subjects performed forelimb movement tasks that did not
engage the eyes. Movements could involve displacement of the shoulder,
elbow, hand, or fingers or some combination of each. A dot is based on
an average of 6–16 subjects. Typically, the baseline behaviour used for
the subtraction method was the total immobility of the body; often this
immobility was conducted in total darkness with the eyes closed. Data
were obtained from the following studies: Colebatch et al. w41x, Deiber et
al. w51x, Dettmers et al. w53x, Jahanshahi et al. w111x, Jenkins et al. w112x,
Jueptner et al. w115,116x, Paus et al. w192x, Playford et al. w209x, Schlaug
et al. w245x, Stephan et al. w269x, and van Mier et al. w292x. The ellipse
represents the distribution of maximal-activity points along the caudorostral and mediolateral axes. Activation in the FEF ellipse is presumably
from the arm area of the motor and premotor cortical areas. See B for
other details. ŽD. The graph shows the location of maximal-activity points
in the DMFC of Brodmann’s area 6 while humans subjects performed
forelimb movement tasks that engaged the eyes. The movements could
involve a key press, pointing movements, or movements of a manipulandum whose displacement was represented visually on a monitor. A dot is
based on an average of 6–24 subjects. Typically, the baseline behaviour
used for the subtraction method was fixation of a visual target. Data were
obtained from the following studies: Corbetta et al. w42x, Grafton et al.
w87–90x, Kawashima et al. w117,118x, Paus et al. w192x, Sakai et al. w224x,
and Sergent et al. w250x. The ellipse represents the distribution of maximal-activity points along the caudorostral and mediolateral axes. See B
for other details.
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
In the FEF, neurons have not been found that respond
specifically to skeletal movement. Several populations of
cells have been discerned: some have visual receptive
fields, some discharge before, during and after saccadic
eye movements, and some respond in association with
fixation as well as smooth pursuit eye movements. The
saccade-associated responses of many cells are tightly
time-locked to saccade execution, suggesting that these
cells contribute centrally to the initiation of eye movements.
For both the DMFC and FEF, recording studies support
the topographic layout of saccadic eye movements as
revealed by electrical stimulation.
6. Event-related potentials in humans
When human subjects make self-initiated finger or hand
movements, a DC shift in cortical potential can be recorded
from scalp electrodes placed over the frontal lobes prior to
these movements. This potential was first termed
‘‘bereitschaftpotential’’, or ‘‘readiness potential’’ by Kornhuber and Deecke w127x. It emanates primarily from
rostromedial recording locations in the frontal lobe Želectroencephalogram ŽEEG. electrode locations Cz, C3, and
C4. and is evident as a slow increase in surface negativity
before self-initiated movements.
The readiness potential has been divided into different
phases w50,252x. The first component is associated with a
slow bilateral buildup of negativity. This buildup generally
occurs up to 1–2 s before the initiation of a voluntary
movement as measured by the onset of EMG activity, and
is most prominent over the midline. Approximately 400 ms
prior to EMG onset, the negative potential increases in
slope and becomes more pronounced in the hemisphere
contralateral to the hand being used w49x. This marks the
second component.
Based on differences in the location of their maxima,
the two components were posited to emanate from different cortical areas w49x. Since the first component was most
prominent over the vertex, and was bilaterally distributed,
it was proposed that its source was bilateral activation of
the DMFC. The second component was centered more
caudally and contralateral to the hand being used. This
corresponded roughly with the hand region of motor cortex. Thus, it was proposed that the second component has
its source primarily in contralateral motor cortex.
This hypothesis of bilateral DMFC activation followed
by contralateral primary motor cortex activity was consistent with single-unit recording evidence showing that
DMFC, but not motor cortex, was organized bilaterally
w278x, and that it was activated earlier than was motor
cortex w2,276x.
The DMFC motor cortex hypothesis was challenged in
humans, however, by the failure to localize the early
component to the DMFC. Modeling the overall potential
by fitting different possible dipole sources, some studies
did not find a stable solution with DMFC as the exclusive
source of the early component w22x. An alternate hypothesis was formulated that attributed both components to the
Fig. 17. Eye movements vs. forelimb movements and DMFC activity. The frequency of maximal-activity points for a given location in the DMFC along
the caudorostral ŽA., mediolateral ŽB., and ventrodorsal ŽC. axes is shown for imaging experiments that studied eye movements ŽEye. and forelimb
movements ŽLimb.. The data for the eye movement and forelimb movement studies are based on the data in Fig. 16B and C, respectively. Values along
each ordinate are expressed in Talairach and Tournoux w273x coordinates. Statistical tests were conducted to determine whether the center of the eye field
differed from the center of the forelimb field. Along the caudorostral axis, the center of the eye field was anterior to the center of the forelimb field
Ž t Ž27. s 3.2, p - 0.01.; along the mediolateral axis, the center of the eye field was not different from the center of the forelimb field Ž t Ž27. s 0.006,
p ) 0.05.; along the ventrodorsal axis, the center of the eye field was ventral to the center of the forelimb field Ž t Ž27. s 3.1, p - 0.01.. See Fig. 16 for
other details.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
motor cortex, with early bilateral activation followed by
exclusively contralateral activation. Other studies using
different recording techniques have also failed to observe
consistent early activation of the DMFC. For example,
Neshige et al. w176x found a clear signal in motor cortex
just prior to movement, but found only weak evidence for
early DMFC activity using subdural electrodes in epileptic
patients. Researchers have also failed to observe the readiness potential over the DMFC using magnetoencephalography ŽMEG.. Countering these claims is a report by Cheyne
and Weinberg w36x, who suggested that these negative
findings were a product of the recording technique of
MEG; they proposed instead that symmetric bilateral activation of both DMFCs would lead to mutually canceling
dipoles. Lang et al. w134x tested this hypothesis by recording from a patient with a unilateral DMFC lesion and
found that a dipole was indeed consistently localized over
the intact DMFC.
Several studies have shown activation of DMFC as well
as motor cortex during self-paced movements using PET
w155,218x but the poor temporal resolution of this technique does not make it possible to distinguish between
early and late components of activation. Thus, the evidence is mixed regarding the role of the DMFC in the
generation of the readiness potential.
If the DMFC is the source of the readiness potential, the
potential should be modulated by tasks that involve the
DMFC to various degrees. Functions that have been at-
Fig. 18. Eye movements vs. eye and forelimb movements and DMFC
activity. The frequency of maximal-activity points for a given location in
the DMFC along the caudorostral axis is shown for the imaging experiments that studied limb movements ŽLimb. and limb and eye movements
ŽLimb and Eye.. The data for Limb and Limb and Eye are based on the
data in Fig. 16C and D, respectively. Values along each ordinate are
expressed in Talairach and Tournoux w273x coordinates. A statistical test
was conducted to determine whether the center of the eye and forelimb
field differed from the center of the forelimb field. Along the caudorostral
axis, the center of the eye and forelimb field was anterior to the center of
the forelimb field Ž t Ž27. s 3.5, p- 0.01.. See Fig. 16 for other details.
433
Fig. 19. Simple vs. complex tasks and DMFC activity. The frequency of
maximal-activity points for a given location in the DMFC along the
rostrocaudal axis is shown for the imaging experiments that studied eye
movements ŽEye. and forelimb movements ŽLimb., sorted according to
whether the movements were simple Žsimple. or complex Žcomplex.. The
data for Eye and Limb are based on the data in Fig. 16B and C,
respectively. For the eye movement experiments, simple movements
included self-paced saccades, visually guided saccades, or visually guided
pursuit, and complex movements included memory-guided saccades,
anti-saccades, or conditional saccades Že.g., visual objectrsaccade direction associations or gornogo saccade tasks.. For the forelimb movement
experiments, simple movements included tactile- or auditory-triggered
finger, hand, or shoulder movements, movements of a joy stick, or
self-paced forelimb movements, and complex movements included antifinger flexion movements Že.g., to move the finger next to the one
stimulated., sequential movements of the fingers or joy stick, or conditional forelimb movements Že.g., to move a particular finger according to
the auditory tone delivered.. Only data from experiments in which subject
were over trained are included. Values along each ordinate are expressed
in Talairach and Tournoux w273x coordinates. Statistical tests were conducted to determine whether the center of the eye and forelimb fields
differed depending on whether the task performed was simple or complex. The center of the eye field for simple and complex tasks did not
differ Ž t Ž9. s1.3, p) 0.05.. Also, the center of the forelimb field for
simple and complex tasks did not differ Ž t Ž15. s1.64, p) 0.05.. See Fig.
16 for other details.
tributed to the DMFC are sequencing of multiple movements and also the learning of motor tasks. The magnitude
of the readiness potential does seem to reflect the complexity of the task being performed and is greater prior to
sequences of movements as opposed to single movements
w48x. As previously discussed, one class of movements that
the DMFC is thought to be specialized for is bimanual
coordination. Lang et al. w136x showed that the magnitude
of the readiness potential was not only greater when
subjects performed a bimanual coordination task as compared to a unimanual one but it was also modulated by the
difficulty of the task. They recorded from trained musicians performing both an easy and a difficult bimanual
rhythm and found that the readiness potential had a greater
magnitude when subjects performed the difficult task.
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Fig. 20. Eye movements vs. forelimb movements and FEF activity. The frequency of maximal-activity points for a given location in the FEF along the
rostrocaudal ŽA., mediolateral ŽB., and ventrodorsal ŽC. axes is shown for imaging experiments that studied eye movements ŽEye. and forelimb
movements ŽLimb.. The data for the eye movement and forelimb movement studies are based on the data in Fig. 16B and C, respectively. Values along
each ordinate are expressed in Talairach and Tournoux w273x coordinates. Statistical tests were conducted to determine whether the center of the eye field
differed from the center of the forelimb field. Along the caudorostral axis, the center of the eye field was anterior to the center of the forelimb field
Ž t Ž30. s 2.6, p - 0.01.; along the mediolateral axis, the center of the eye field was lateral to the center of the forelimb field Ž t Ž30. s 4.3, p - 0.01.; along
the ventrodorsal axis, the center of the eye field was ventral to the center of the forelimb field Ž t Ž30. s 4.9, p - 0.01.. See Fig. 16 for other details.
The readiness potential is also modulated during motor
learning. Several studies have observed a change in the
magnitude of the readiness potential over the course of
learning of a difficult motor task, such as mirror tracing
w48,135,177x.
Although the majority of studies examining the readiness potential have used hand or finger movements, a
readiness potential can also be seen prior to saccadic eye
movements w9,57,126x and speech w91x. These findings
suggest that the readiness potential is a generalized premovement signal. Because of the low spatial resolution of
EEG recording, it is not known whether the pre-movement
signals all emanate from one source, or from several
sources close to each other. The readiness potential observed before arm, eye, foot or mouth movements could
actually be emanating from each of the respective representations in the topography known to exist in the DMFC.
Experiments using finer resolution techniques, such as
MEG or subdural recording, will be required to resolve
this question.
In monkeys, correlates of the readiness potential have
been observed using a variety of techniques. Field potential recordings revealed a slow potential prior to movements w97x, particularly during learning of new movements
w75,225x. At the single-cell level, many studies have observed a preponderance of neurons in DMFC that discharge in advance of movement. Such discharge before
arm movements has been termed ‘‘preparatory set’’ w2,179x.
Early pre-movement activity has also been observed prior
to saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements w105,
Fig. 21. Effects of learning on DMFC and FEF activity. ŽA. Shown is a
top view of the human cerebral cortex. The approximate location of the
DMFC and FEF is represented by the ellipses. The central sulcus ŽCs.,
precentral sulcus ŽPCs., and superior frontal sulcus ŽSFs. are indicated.
ŽB. The graph shows the location of maximal-activity points in Brodmann’s area 6 observed with PET or fMRI while human subjects learned
eye movement Že., limb movement Žl., or eye and limb movement Že & l.
tasks. Each symbol within the figure represents the location of a maximal-activity point plotted in Talairach and Tournoux w273x coordinates. A
maximal activity point is based on the average of 6–12 subjects. The
subtraction method was used to determine a maximal-activity point.
Typically, the baseline behaviour used for the subtraction method was the
performance of a task that resembled the learned task in terms of the
types of movements executed except that there was no change in performance over trials. Data were obtained from the following studies: for eye
movements experiments Že.: Kawashima et al. w119x; for limb movement
experiments Žl.: Jenkins et al. w112x; Jueptner et al. w115,116x; for eye and
limb movement experiments Že and l.: Grafton et al. w88,89x; Sakai et al.
w224x. The vertically oriented ellipse represents the approximate location
of the DMFC and the horizontally oriented ellipse represents the approximate location of the FEF. See Fig. 16 for other details.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
228,243x. It remains to be seen whether such activity is
truly analogous with human readiness potentials, and if it
is modulated by the same factors.
In conclusion, the readiness potential has been observed
over the DMFC of both humans and monkeys. There is
some question as to whether the DMFC is the true source
of this potential. The magnitude of this potential is affected
by motor learning, task difficulty, and whether the task is
bimanual or unimanual. The readiness potential has been
studied mainly using forelimb-movement tasks, and to a
lesser degree, oculomotor tasks. The somatotopic map
435
described for the DMFC has yet to be verified using EEG
recordings.
7. Metabolic imaging of the DMFC and FEF in humans
PET and fMRI have been used on humans to measure
the metabolic activity of the cortex as subjects performed
eye and forelimb movement tasks. The metabolic activity
is assumed to reflect neuronal activity. A large region of
Fig. 22. Monkey and ape frontal lobe functional maps. All panels show lateral views, with anterior to the left and dorsal at the top. ŽA. Schematic of
monkey frontal lobe and the movements elicited by stimulation from each region w11x. Note that eye movements are represented in the curve of the arcuate
sulcus, but eyelid blinking is represented caudally, in the motor strip. ŽB. Photograph of the orangutan brain studied by Beevor and Horsley w11x; the
stippling they used to show functional areas has been modified to hatched areas for clarity. FEF, frontal eye field; EBF, eyelid blinking field; MSEF, motor
strip eye field. ŽC. A representative chimpanzee brain, modified from a figure by Leyton and Sherrington w144x. In this particular animal, the MSEF was
not found, but the general location of this region in other chimpanzees is indicated. ŽD. A representative gorilla brain w144x. Sites from both hemispheres
pooled together. In panels C and D, eye rotation was the primary movement evoked at sites 373 and 376; eyelid closing was the primary movement evoked
from sites c, p, m, and n; and eye rotation occasionally accompanied the movements Žhead turnings. that were primarily evoked from sites N and III.
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E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Brodmann’s area 6 becomes active when subjects generate
saccadic or smooth pursuit eye movements ŽFig. 16A.. The
medial portion of this region is presumed to be the DMFC,
and the lateral portion is presumed to be the FEF ŽFig. 16B
w189,219x.. Here, we review imaging studies and compare
the locations of the center of activation for eye movement
tasks and forelimb movement tasks.
In the DMFC of monkeys, the eye field overlaps with
the forelimb field Žsee Fig. 15.. Fig. 16B, C, and D show
the distributions of maximal activity points obtained from
imaging studies conducted on the DMFC of humans as
they performed eye movements alone, or forelimb movements alone, or eye and forelimb movement together. The
distributions ŽFig. 16B and C. suggest that the eye and
forelimb fields of the human DMFC are overlapped. Despite this overlap, the center of the eye field in the DMFC
was situated anterior to the center of the forelimb field
ŽFig. 17A.. This result is consistent with the somatotopy of
the DMFC of monkeys, and is also consistent with earlier
observations made in humans w64x. Furthermore, the center
of the DMFC’s eye field was ventral to the center of
forelimb field ŽFig. 17C.. This is due to the fact that the
surface of the frontal lobes in humans curves downward as
one advances rostrally. Finally, there was no difference in
the location of the center of the eye field in the DMFC as
compared with the center of the forelimb field along the
mediolateral dimension ŽFig. 17B..
In most studies so far, comparisons have been based on
experiments that studied either eye movements with no
forelimb involvement or forelimb movements with no eye
involvement. When comparisons were made between the
center of a field based on forelimb movements that engaged the eyes and the center of a field based on forelimb
movements that did not engage the eyes, it was found that
the center of the former, the limb and eye case, was
anterior to the center of the latter, the limb-only case ŽFig.
18.. This indicates that by engaging the eyes during a
forelimb movement task, the center of the activity field
within the DMFC shifts rostrally.
A recent review by Picard and Strick w204x have suggested that the performance of complex tasks activates
anterior regions of the DMFC and that the performance of
simple tasks activates more posterior regions of the DMFC
w204x. We compared the centers of activity within the
DMFC for simple and complex tasks that involved the
eyes only and forelimbs only Žsee caption of Fig. 19 for
details.. For both behaviours, there was no tendency for
the performance of complex tasks to activate regions anterior to those activated for the performance of simple tasks;
if anything, the center of activity was situated somewhat
more caudally during the performance of complex tasks
ŽFig. 19.. Only experiments in which subjects were overtrained on the task were considered here, since studies
have shown that learning a new task greatly augments the
activity of the DMFC when compared to the overtrained
condition w224x.
Maximal activity points for the eye and forelimb fields
of the human FEF region were compared ŽFig. 16B and C,
FEF.. 6 It was found that forelimb tasks activated more
caudal and medial locations of the FEF region, whereas
eye movement tasks activated more rostral and lateral
regions ŽFig. 20A and B.. Consistent with this was the
observation that the forelimb tasks activated more dorsal
sites in the cortex and the eye movement tasks activated
more ventral sites ŽFig. 20C.. This can be explained by the
fact that the surface of the frontal lobes in humans curves
downward moving rostrally and laterally.
To summarize, the eye and forelimb fields of the human
DMFC are highly overlapped, with the center of the eye
field being somewhat more anterior to the center of the
forelimb field. For comparison, the eye field within the
FEF region is also situated more anterior to the forelimb
field of this region, although the forelimb field here represents the forelimb area of the premotor and motor cortices.
Contrary to the findings of Picard and Strick, we do not
find evidence for the idea that the anterior DMFC mediates
‘‘complex’’ tasks and that the posterior DMFC mediates
‘‘simple’’ tasks. When forelimb movements are accompanied by eye movements, the center of the activity field
within the DMFC shifts rostrally. This concurs with the
general topographic order of human as well as monkey
DMFC.
8. Motor learning and the DMFC and FEF
Imaging experiments performed on human subjects have
disclosed that the DMFC becomes very active during the
learning of new tasks ŽFig. 21 w88,89,112,115,116,119,
224x.. Learning tasks that engage both the eyes and limbs
tend to similarly activate anterior and posterior sites of the
DMFC w88,89,224x. One study has been done on the
learning of an eye movement task, and in this case, the
anterior DMFC was activated w119x. As for the FEF, one
site only has been identified that is maximally active
during the learning of an eye or forelimb movement task.
This difference between the DMFC and FEF is quite
revealing given that in all these studies, neuronal activity
was assessed over both the DMFC and FEF.
Sakai et al. w224x found that once human subjects
master the performance of a task, the activity of the DMFC
drops. They trained subjects to depress a set of buttons in a
particular order using visual guidance. The DMFC was
more active during the performance of an underlearned
task as compared to the performance of an overlearned
task. Also, the readiness potential that has been attributed
to the DMFC was found to exhibit a decrease in amplitude
once human subjects were overtrained w133,177x.
6
Limb-related activation in the FEF region presumably is due to
neurons of the primary motor cortex and premotor cortex, which abuts
human FEF.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
Chen and Wise w33,34x found that cells in the DMFC of
monkeys were more readily modulated during the learning
of an object–saccade association task than were cells in
the FEF. For this task, a monkey was required to fixate a
spot where an object stimulus was subsequently presented.
Following the dousing of the object stimulus and fixation
spot, the monkey was required to generate a saccade to one
of four identical targets. Making a saccade to one of the
four targets produced a reward. Through trial and error, the
animal had to determine which of four saccade directions
Ži.e., up, down, left, or right. yielded a reward for a given
object stimulus. Neurons in the DMFC, as compared with
neurons in the FEF, more often changed their firing rate
with changes in the performance of the object–saccade
association task.
Aizawa et al. w1x found that training a monkey for 1
year to press two keys in response to a visual target
resulted in fewer DMFC units than normal being modulated by the task. Only two units of 1120 tested were
modulated after 1 year of training, compared with the
normal rate of 40% observed after 1–4 months of training
w278x. Also more cells in the DMFC of monkeys are
modulated during the performance of a new task than
during the performance of an overlearned task w175x. As
mentioned previously, once monkeys are overtrained on a
task, inactivation of the DMFC is no longer disruptive
w168,227x.
Any area of the brain that participates in the learning of
motor tasks, as the DMFC seems to, should be influenced
by reward delivery given that it is usually reward that
motivates subjects to learn. Cells in the DMFC are modulated while monkeys fixate different positions in craniotopic space for a juice reward, but not when monkeys
look about freely and obtain no reward w19,139x. Mann et
al. w156x observed that cells in the DMFC respond to the
delivery of juice only when the juice is delivered as a
reward for task execution but not when delivered outside
of task execution Že.g., as during the intertrial interval..
Also while monkeys learned an object–saccade association
task for juice reward, many cells within the DMFC were
modulated immediately before and after the reward period.
Of the seven cells illustrated by Chen and Wise w33x
showing changes in responsivity with changes in task
performance, five cells showed clear changes in modulation during the reward period.
That the DMFC has access to a reward signal should
not be surprising given that the substantia nigra of monkeys sends a rich dopaminergic projection to this cortical
area w12,13,63,72,143,210x, an input that is more robust
than that to the FEFrprefrontal region and other cortical
areas w13,71,143x. Like the DMFC w1,33,34,133,175,177,
224x, the substantia nigra is maximally active during the
early stages of learning a motor task w145,246x.
In short, the DMFC seems more involved in motor
learning than the FEF. This conclusion is based on imaging data from humans and on single-unit recording data
437
from monkeys. It is apparent that the activity of the DMFC
drops with protracted training on a variety of motor tasks.
After such training, lesions of the DMFC are no longer
disruptive. The DMFC has a substantial dopaminergic
input that might mediate motor learning.
9. Misplaced human FEF?
PET and fMRI studies have found that the human FEF
is in the precentral sulcus, abutting or lying within the
primary motor strip. These results differ from the location
of the FEF in monkeys. The key to reconciling this
difference may lie in a consideration of behavioural methods used by imaging investigators, who assume that their
images reflect neuronal activity related to moving the eyes.
To obtain these images, data derived during control scans
Ži.e., while subjects fixate or are at rest. are subtracted
from data derived during saccadic test scans. 7 This is
intended to localize brain areas related to moving the eyes,
because this is the only movement that supposedly differentiates the test scans from the control scans. However,
another action has been well-documented to occur with
saccades: eyelid blinking w58,62,298,303x. Unless subjects
are specifically instructed to inhibit blinking, it is common
for blinking to occur when saccades are made. In contrast,
subjects blink less frequently during steady fixation or
during rest. Subjects rarely blink during task-related saccades Žthose made toward a visual target, for instance. but
they compensate by blinking with high likelihood during
‘‘return’’ saccades in the intertrial interval w58,62,303x.
Blinking is particularly common for saccades greater than
108 in amplitude w303x, which means that blinking may
have frequently accompanied saccades during test scans in
six of the eight PET studies reviewed recently ŽPaus w189x:
Refs. w4,64,137,178,191,199x., in four out of the five published fMRI studies ŽRefs. w43,47,171,197x; the exception
is Luna et al. w148x., and even in the original 133 Xe
regional cerebral blood flow study that started the era of
FEF imaging w164x. No oculomotor imaging study, to our
knowledge, has mentioned instructing the subjects not to
blink, nor has any used control scans in which subjects
blinked at similar rates as detected during test scans.
Accordingly, most imaging studies have probably mislocated the FEF caudally, toward the motor strip which
contains a region that mediates blinking responses Žan
eyelid blinking field. as well as another region that medi-
7
Recently w43x, the method of fMRI has made it possible to compare
data from different epochs of a task with each other Ž‘‘epoch 1’’
image–‘‘epoch 2’’ image.. The problems discussed in this section are
still relevant.
438
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
ates eye movements in humans Ža motor strip eye field.
ŽFig. 22 and Fig. 23A–C.. 8
Only a single imaging study that examined saccade
generation failed to find the FEF near the expected precentral sulcus location w119x. In this study by Kawashima et
al., subjects made a series of seven successive saccades to
visual targets, each saccadic period lasting a second, and
then subjects rested for a second, on average. The saccades
were of relatively short amplitude 9 and nearly all saccades
were task-related, such that blinking was probably inhibited until the intertrial period, when ‘‘return’’ saccades
were allowed w58,62,303x. This intertrial period only occurred for about 1 s out of approximately every 9 s. It
would seem that blinking once every 9 s or so is about the
rate expected to occur during fixation, as well. Therefore,
8
Electrical stimulation of the FEF region in monkeys causes conjugate
eye movements Že.g., Refs. w10,59,294x. ŽFig. 22A.. Eyelid blinking is
evoked from the face area of the precentral motor strip of monkey ŽFig.
22A w262x.. Beevor and Horsely w11x stimulated the brain of an orangutan
and found that conjugate eye movements Žwith no eyelid movements.
were evoked from a region anterior to, and well-separated from, the
motor strip Ž‘‘FEF’’ in Fig. 22B.. Eyelid blinking was evoked from the
face area in the motor strip Ž‘‘EBF’’, for eyelid blinking field, in Fig.
22B.. A complex combination of head rotation, eye movement, and
eyelid opening was also evoked within the motor strip itself, just medial
to the blinking area Ž‘‘MSEF’’, for motor strip eye field, in Fig. 22B..
Leyton and Sherrington w144x confirmed all these findings in their subsequent study of orangutans, chimpanzees ŽFig. 22C., and gorillas ŽFig.
22D..
When neurosurgeons began stimulating the human brain, they found that
the oculomotor layout of humans was similar to that of anthropoid apes.
Rasmussen and Penfield w212x evoked eye movements from 48 stimulation sites in 31 patients and separated their eye movement sites into two
groups. A posterior group consisted of 18 sites Ž37.5% of the total. on the
lip of the central sulcus ŽFig. 23A.. Here, contraversive and as well as
ipsiversive movements were often evoked. An anterior group consisted of
30 sites Ž62.5% of the total. that were mostly rostral to the precentral
sulcus ŽFig. 23A.. At these anterior sites, nearly all the evoked movements were contraversive. Comparing the two groups of eye movement
sites with data from monkey and ape Žcf. Fig. 22., it seems that the
anterior group represents the FEF and that the posterior group represents
the motor strip eye field. Rasmussen and Penfield also evoked eyelid
movements from 27 sites in 18 patients. In contrast to the distribution of
eye movement sites, the majority of eyelid sites Ž63% of the total. were
on the lip of the central sulcus ŽFig. 23B..
In order to summarize these results, we calculated the average locations
of Rasmussen and Penfield’s anterior eye field, posterior eye field, and
eyelid field, depicting each field with an ellipse ŽFig. 23C.. The ellipses
were constructed by scanning the original figures w212x into a computer
graphics program, finding the x – y location of each point, and drawing
an ellipse to represent each field where the ellipse’s center was at the
mean x – y location and the radii of the ellipses in the x and y direction
equaled the standard deviations of the points in each direction. Rasmussen and Penfield’s anterior eye field ŽFEF. is almost completely
rostral to the precentral sulcus Žand mostly within the middle frontal
gyrus w193x.. Note that this location is in excellent agreement with the
location of Foerster’s FEF ŽFig. 1C.. In contrast to the FEF, the eyelid
field and posterior eye field are mostly within the motor strip.
9
Mean 15"S.D. 58, range 78–258; calculated from their Fig. 1.
we suspect that blinking activations may have been canceled out in the study of Kawashima et al. w119x when
control scans Žfixation. were subtracted from the test scans.
Kawashima et al. w119x found that, although precentral
sulcus activation was not significant, activation in the
middle frontal gyrus was strong and bilateral Žsee their
Tables 1 and 3.. The location of this activation zone in
Talairach space was x s 36.5 " 5.3, y s 25.8 " 12.3, and
z s 29.3 " 7.7. 10 Could this be within the true human
FEF? Its location in the middle frontal gyrus w119x puts it
within granular cortex ŽFig. 23D. and within the mediodorsal thalamus-recipient zone Žregio frontalis, Fig. 23E.,
making it anatomically homologous to the monkey FEF
Žsee Section 2.2.1.. The location of this putative FEF in
Talairach space is about 3.5 cm anterior to the precentral
sulcus and thus is well-removed from the primary motor
strip. Furthermore, it is not within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as mapped by imaging investigators; rather,
it lies about 1.1 cm posterior to it. 11 This makes the
putative human FEF location, as found by Kawashima et
al. w119x, homologous with monkey FEF in terms of gross
location w70x. The idea, that human FEF is in the middle
frontal gyrus, has very recently been supported using a
method independent of functional imaging: transcranial
magnetic stimulation combined with structural MRI ŽFig.
23D,E; Ro et al. w215x..
Thus, human imaging studies are needed that explicitly
control eyelid blinking so as to determine whether the
human FEF is indeed located within the middle frontal
gyrus. The oculomotor deficits that occur after damage to
the precentral region in humans might in fact be due to
damage of axons originating from the middle frontal gyrus.
Finally, based on our analysis Žsee 8 ., a third eye field
might exist in the frontal lobe of monkeys, a motor-strip
eye field, immediately adjacent to the face area within the
precentral sulcus. In human imaging studies, this eye field
may also contribute to biasing the FEF activity field
caudally toward the motor cortex as subjects perform
oculomotor tasks.
10
Mean and standard deviations of their middle frontal gyrus activations, ns 4. Note, left and right hemispheres combined, so absolute value
of x was used.
11
Significantly different from the activity focus of prefrontal cortex
imaging, ps 0.038, Mann–Whitney rank sum test, from the dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex mean location of x s 35.5"5.3, y s 37.1"5.7, z s
23.7"7.4 in Talairach coordinates; found by pooling 39 estimates of
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that were imaged during tasks that primarily
involved working memory; right and left hemispheres combined Žabsolute
value of x used.; values used only if authors indicate that the activation
included at least part of Brodmann’s area 46. Studies used: Cohen et al.
w39,40x; Courtney et al. w44,45x; Goldberg et al. w83x; Haxby et al. w98x;
McCarthy et al. w163x; Owen et al. w182–185x; Petrides et al. w200,201x;
Smith et al. w260,261x.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
10. Discussion
This review makes it evident that the organization and
the functions of the DMFC and FEF for the most part are
quite different. In what follows, we shall discuss the
439
similarities and the differences that have been established
between these two structures.
Ž1. The first difference between these structures is in
the kinds of coding operations they perform. There is now
compelling evidence to the effect that the FEF carries a
440
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
retinocentric code whereas the DMFC carries a craniocentric one. Two major lines of evidence support the existence
of a retinocentric code in the FEF. Ža. Electrical stimulation of the area evokes predominantly contraversive saccades of a specific size and direction irrespective of starting eye position w216x; there is topographic order in the
layout within the FEF for different direction and amplitude
saccadic eye movements. Žb. Neurons in the FEF are tuned
for specific directions and sizes of saccades made into
contralateral space w31x; this arrangement corresponds with
what has been reported with electrical stimulation. Supportive, if less compelling, is the evidence from lesion
studies that show deficits in saccade execution associated
with the execution of vectors w54,213,263x.
Two major lines of evidence support the claim that the
DMFC carries a craniocentric code. Ža. Electrical stimulation of the DMFC at most sites drives the eyes to a
particular orbital position and these orbital positions are
topographically ordered in the DMFC w282x. Žb. The response characteristics of single cells confirm this observation w139x. Lesion studies, again less compelling, are also
in support of a craniocentric code in the DMFC; deficits
have been reported in both monkeys and humans for the
execution of saccades to two or more remembered target
positions w73,74,264x; the deficit has been attributed to a
failure to store the second or subsequent target positions in
craniotopic coordinates w208x.
Ž2. The second distinction between the two eye-movement areas in the frontal lobe is that the DMFC is less
dedicated to the execution of saccadic eye movements than
is the FEF. The DMFC contains a representation of the
entire body; stimulation evokes oculomotor as well as
skeletomotor responses Že.g., Mitz and Wise w166x.; and
many individual neurons in the DMFC respond both to eye
and limb movements, which is not the case for FEF
neurons w37,38,173x.
Ž3. The third difference between these two structures is
revealed by the deficits that arise after ablation or reversible inactivation. Inactivation or lesions of the FEF
produce deficits in saccadic latencies and velocities, in
generating saccades to extinguished targets, in the selection of simultaneously presented targets, in the execution
of sequences of saccadic eye movements to successive
targets, and in pursuit eye movements; deficits in making
saccades to extinguished targets in the selection of simultaneously presented targets, and in the execution of sequences of saccades are long-lasting. In contrast, DMFC
inactivation and lesions produce virtually no deficits in
saccades made to a single visual target or in pursuit eye
movements; the deficits seen in initiating saccades to
extinguished targets and in the execution of sequences of
saccades are of small magnitude and recover rapidly.
In support of the FEF lesion work, physiological studies
have reported neurons involved in pursuit eye movement
in the FEF w154x. In conflict with the DMFC lesion work,
however, is the finding that DMFC neurons are modulated
during pursuit eye movements w101,105x and that stimulation of the DMFC interferes with pursuit w102–104x. It is
unclear whether this latter effect is due to direct interference with neural structures involved in the execution of
pursuit eye movements. The effects reported could be due
to interference produced by the stimulation that normally
drives the eye to a termination zone.
The DMFC and the FEF are similar in having neurons
that alter their responses as animals and humans learn new
visuomotor tasks although such neurons are more preva-
Fig. 23. Results from intraoperative stimulation in humans, and anatomical implications of our human FEF hypothesis. Anterior is to the left in all the
panels, and dorsal is to the top. Pictures in panels A and B were flipped in mirror image from the originals w212x so as to put anterior to the left. ŽA. Human
Frontal lobe eye movement sites found by Rasmussen and Penfield w212x. They distinguished two groups separated by function and location, shown here as
‘‘Anterior Sites’’ Žwhich includes the sites described by arrow diagrams at top and bottom. and ‘‘Posterior Sites’’. Arrows describe the directions of eye
movements evoked at each site; leftward arrow s purely contraversive movement and rightward arrow s purely ipsiversive movement. Some movements
have a vertical component as well, and some are purely vertical. Also, converging arrowss convergence and ? s movement not described. ŽB. Frontal
lobe eyelid movement sites found by Rasmussen and Penfield w212x. ŽC. Summary of the general locations of the FEF, the eyelid blinking field ŽEBF., and
the motor strip eye field ŽMSEF., according to the data of Rasmussen and Penfield w212x Žsee 8 for details of constructing the ellipses.. ŽD. Basic
cytoarchitecture of human frontal lobe, above, compared with monkey, below. Region 2 Žhorizontal lines. is the extent of granular frontal cortex, and
caudal to that Žbut anterior to the central sulcus ŽCS.. is agranular frontal cortex. The region within the bold-outlined polygon is the general predicted
location of the human FEF, lying in the middle frontal gyrus where neocortex changes from granular layer IV Žrostrally. to agranular Žcaudally.. A similar
transition is seen in monkey FEF, lying in the bank of the arcuate sulcus ŽAS. where granular cortex changes to agranular cortex. Figures derived from
Walker w301x. ŽE. Known connections of the human brain with respect to thalamus, above; compared with monkey, below. In human brain, the ‘‘regio
frontalis’’ is connected primarily with the mediodorsal ŽMD. nucleus of the thalamus; the region caudal to that is connected primarily with the ventrolateral
ŽVL. thalamic nucleus. Our predicted FEF region in the middle frontal gyrus is probably at a transition point, being connected with both thalamic zones.
Similarly, FEF in monkey is also at a transition point where cortex changes from being more connected with MD thalamus Žstippled. to being more
connected with VL thalamus Žcross-hatched.. Human brain map is modified from Bailey and von Bonin w7x; monkey brain map is modified from Walker
w300x, chosen because he used similar methods Žretrograde degeneration. as was used to derive the human map w65,165x. PCS, precentral sulcus. In both D
and E, the triangle shows the approximate mean location of middle frontal gyrus activation found by Kawashima et al. w119x, and the ŽX. shows the
approximate regions in two human subjects where transcranial magnetic stimulation delayed saccades ŽRo et al. w215x; plotted with reference to anatomy of
Yousry et al. w312x.. For explanation of other notations and area fills in panels D and E, see the original papers.
E.J. TehoÕnik et al.r Brain Research ReÕiews 32 (2000) 413–448
lent in the DMFC ŽFig. 21; Chen and Wise w33,34x.. In the
DMFC, a frequently made observation is a decrease in the
responses of neurons as proficiency is reached on a task.
No such decrease has been reported so far for the FEF.
Dopaminergic inputs to the DMFC are greater than those
to the FEF. Whether this difference is functionally significant as it relates to learning is unclear.
Many outstanding issues pertaining to the functions of
the DMFC and FEF remain to be addressed. Here we note
three. First, it is not known what the magnitude is of the
modifiability of DMFC and FEF neurons. At the present
time, most unit recordings are limited to a time span of a
few hours; changes that arise in the course of long-term
learning have not been amenable to study. Second, it
remains unclear as to what extent neurons in these areas
play a role in memory functions. Does the execution of
motor acts in the absence of direct sensory input rely on
neural circuits within these structures or are they relayed to
these areas from other regions? How are these structures
engaged during task performance once overtraining has
occurred? Third, the exact nature of the neural code in
these areas needs to be clarified. While there is general
agreement to the effect that the FEF carries a retinocentric
code, the nature of the code in the DMFC is still under
debate, as both retinocentric and craniocentric coding operations have been noted. Whether, in addition, other egocentric codes w205x or even allocentric codes w180x are
operative in these or related areas needs to be assessed.
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Andreas Tolias and David
Leopold for comments on this review. This work was
supported by NEI grant EY-08502 to P.H. Schiller.
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