Effects of Residual Inhibition Phenomenon on Early Auditory Evoked
... It could be possible (with no certainty) that the neural mechanisms which are involved in RI
phenomenon, are similar to (or overlap with) those that cause generation of tinnitus (Roberts,
2007). By accepting aforesaid hypothesis, understanding neural mechanisms involved in RI can
create a new horizo ...
Muscimol-Induced Inactivation of Monkey Frontal Eye Field: Effects
... a network of cortical and subcortical areas that controls eye
movements. Removal of one component of the network causes
an initial deficit that soon is compensated for by the remainder
of the network. When several nodes within the network are
removed, however, the deficits become more permanent.
Neurophysiology - American Physiological Society
... receptor membrane, peripheral axon process, central axon process, soma, sensory ganglia.
NEU 3. Write the Nernst equation, and explain the effects of altering the intracellular or
extracellular Na+, K+, Cl-, or Ca2+ concentration on the equilibrium potential for that ion.
NEU 4. Describe the normal ...
Understanding the process of multisensory integration
... reexamine this process. The result, detailed in Chapter 2, was a new model that can
accurately predict a neuron’s multisensory response on a moment-by-moment basis
as it evolves, with only knowledge of its responses to the individual component
Neck Muscle Responses to Stimulation of Monkey Superior
... and 1,500 ms. SC stimulation (variable duration, described in the
following text) was delivered on 80 –90% of all trials between 500 and
1,000 ms after the onset of fixation. Stimulation was delivered either
while the FP remained visible (fixation trials; 40 – 45% of all trials) or
200 ms after the ...
neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data
... mediated by neuronal reward prediction error signals which implement basic constructs of reinforcement learning theory. These signals are found in dopamine neurons, which emit
a global reward signal to striatum and frontal cortex, and in specific neurons in striatum, amygdala,
and frontal cortex pro ...
Cholinergic Cells and Pathways
... with projection and augmenting activity as they
pointed out that ACh-sensitive cortical cells
respond to thalamic or peripheral sensory stimulation with repetitive after-discharges and changes
in the EEG. These notions were supported by the
ﬁnding of Frank (Hank) MacIntosh and Paul
Oborin (1953) of ...
Primary- and Secondary-Like Jaw-Muscle Spindle Afferents Have
... posterior surfaces of the cerebellum were removed, and warmed
mineral oil was applied to the surface of the brain stem and cerebellar cortex. Before electrophysiological recording, chlorpromazine
(150 mg/kg) was administered to suppress background fusimotor
activity (Cody et al. 1972), and a pneumot ...
... attended an interview at the Department of Communication and Neuroscience at Keele University during which he was
persuaded to switch systems and work on the physiology of hearing with Ted Evans. The early 1970s were exciting
times in auditory science with an explosion of pioneering measurements on ...
The Anatomy of the Posterior Commissure
... reference to the pupilloconstrictory pathway via the posterior
commissure was also reported (14). All these studies
were related to the light reflex function of the posterior
commissure which was already known. We also observed the
posterior commissure to connect the right and left pretectal
The circadian visual system, 2005
... explored to date, if a photic stimulus is sufficient to produce a
maximal phase shift, more photons at the same time or up to 2
h later have no additional effect on phase shift magnitude
(Nelson and Takahashi, 1999). In such cases, the circadian
system is deemed to be “saturated” with respect to its ...
Selective stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson`s
... the cortico-basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit, the STN plays an important role in not
only motor, but also in cognitive and limbic processes. Classically the STN is divided into
three subregions: a motor, limbic and associative part (Hamani, et al., 2004, Temel, et
The STN neuronal ...
Local Field Potentials Related to Bimanual Movements in the
... potentials in motor cortex has focused on the relationship of synchronous oscillations to movement and to
single unit activity (Sanes and Donoghue, 1993;Eckhorn and Obermueller, 1993;Murthy and Fetz,
1996a;Baker et al., 1999), but the character of the evoked potential in this area and its relationsh ...
to the Proceedings
... The classic view of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is that the “primary” targets are hair cells, and that
cochlear-nerve loss occurs only “secondary” to hair cell degeneration. Our work has challenged that
view. In noise-induced hearing loss, exposures causing only reversible threshold shifts (an ...
Structure and dynamics of the corticothalamic driver pathway in the
... distributed, non-linear and dynamic process. Following sensory receptor activation the signal travels
through many brain regions wherein the pathway is split, loops back onto itself and joins together
with others. At each step, neurons dynamically transform and filter the signal. To understand how
NEURAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING THE LEARNING
... discriminative control over the UCR (Baxter, 1966; Kimmel, 1967; Knight et al., 2010;
Marcos & Redondo, 1999). Others have suggested that conscious expectations modify
UCR expression (Dunsmoor et al., 2008; Knight et al., 2010; Rust, 1976). For example,
greater UCR diminution has been observed when ...
Different Orientation Tuning of Near- and Far
... the minimum response field (mRF) were carefully located quantitatively
using a grating patch of 0.2° diameter. The area of the mRF was defined as
the visual field region in which the small grating patch elicited a response
at least 2 SDs above the spontaneous rate, and the geometric center of this
Auditory Pathways and Processes
... behavioral responses to auditory and visual inputs (Pastor et al., 2008). The basal ganglia
have been identified as having a role in processing auditory signal aspects of speech
(Kotz, Schwartze, & Schmidt-Kassow, 2009), particularly timing.
Efferent pathways, thought to be part of a feedback loop t ...
Inhibitory Gating of Basolateral Amygdala Inputs to the Prefrontal
... Carter, 2013). However, the overall influence of BLA inputs
could be inhibitory if connections are stronger onto local
The PFC also possesses a variety of GABAergic interneurons,
which have distinct morphological and physiological properties,
including parvalbumin (PV) and so ...
Contrast-dependence of surround suppression in
... the region outside the sRFlow. Feedforward connections (green) to V1 from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) are commensurate with the sRFhigh of V1 neurons (Angelucci and
Sainsbury, 2006). Intra-areal V1 horizontal connections (red) are commensurate with the sRFlow, while extrastriate feedback co ...
Different adrenal sympathetic preganglionic
... square wave pulses. The following two stimulus paradigms
were used: 1) a short burst of three pulses, 6-ms interpulse
interval, 20–100 A, 1 ms duration, 0.25 Hz and 2) highfrequency train of 20 Hz for 3 s, 1 ms duration, 20–100 A.
Natural stimulation of the baroreceptors was produced by
the rise i ...
view - E-LIB Bremen - Universität Bremen
... found that the predictions of this model very often were wrong. Particularily illuminating tests of spSTDP have been conducted by Froemke and Dan  and
Wang and colleagues . They used spike triplets consisting of either a pre-, then
a post-, then again a presynaptic spike with equal time diﬀe ...
... However, a recent 10 year follow-up study indicated that 35% of paediatric patients still meet
criteria and it’s been estimated that affects between 3 and 7% of adult population. Even
thought the exact neurobiological substrate of ADHD still unclear, genetic, preclinical and
clinical studies point t ...
Functional Organization of the Gustatory System in the Brains of
... This reproduction was made from a copy of a m anuscript sent to u s for publication
and microfilming. While the m ost advanced technology has been used to pho
tograph and reproduce this m anuscript, the quality of the reproduction is heavily
dependent upon the quality of the material submitted. Pag ...
Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a form of classical conditioning that has been used extensively to study neural structures and mechanisms that underlie learning and memory. The procedure is relatively simple and usually consists of pairing an auditory or visual stimulus (the conditioned stimulus (CS)) with an eyeblink-eliciting unconditioned stimulus (US) (e.g. a mild puff of air to the cornea or a mild shock). Naïve organisms initially produce a reflexive, unconditioned response (UR) (e.g. blink or extension of nictitating membrane) that follows US onset. After many CS-US pairings, an association is formed such that a learned blink, or conditioned response (CR), occurs and precedes US onset. The magnitude of learning is generally gauged by the percentage of all paired CS-US trials that result in a CR. Under optimal conditions, well-trained animals produce a high percentage of CRs (> 90%). The conditions necessary for, and the physiological mechanisms that govern, eyeblink CR learning have been studied across many mammalian species, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, ferrets, cats, and humans. Historically, rabbits have been the most popular research subjects.