Neurophysiology - American Physiological Society
... NEU 47. Define rapidly and slowly adapting sensory reception and correlate these with the
types of sensory receptors serving the Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscus system and the spinothalamic system, respectively.
NEU 48. Describe the steps in sensory transduction and action potential generation at a
NEURAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING THE LEARNING
... UCS. For example, prior work has shown potentiation of the startle response during fear
conditioning (Grillon et al., 1991), while unconditioned skin conductance response (SCR)
diminishes as associative learning develops during Pavlovian fear conditioning (Baxter,
1966; Kimmel, 1967; Marcos & Redon ...
Calcium Transients in the Garter Snake Vomeronasal Organ
... transients in retrogradely labeled snake vomeronasal (VN) neurons. A shows a video image illustrating the
selective staining of VN neurons with Ca2⫹ Green after retrograde transport of this dye from their axonal terminals in the accessory
olfactory bulb (AOB). Observe the labeling in the cell bodies ...
Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings
... participants judged low pitches, but an equivalent semantic congruity effect (i.e., time required to judge which of two stimuli is
more extreme along a dimension decreases when the judgment is
congruent with that end of the dimension; Banks, 1977) for judgments of low pitches did not occur.
Yoo, Lee ...
Understanding the process of multisensory integration
... on the relative efficacies with which they drive their common target neuron. Larger
multisensory responses were achieved when stronger responses were advanced in
time relative to weaker responses. This new temporal principle of integration
suggests an inhibitory mechanism that better accounts for th ...
... Welcome to the 40th Annual ARO Midwinter Meeting, being held for the sixth time at the Marriott Waterfront in Baltimore, Maryland. This
year’s meeting includes a record 1096 submitted abstracts, 13 symposia and 23 podium sessions. In addition, there will be daily mentoring
sessions (Saturday, Sunday ...
SOP #11 Acoustic Startle and Pre
... on startle is a test parameter. Animals should be kept in a housing facility offering
conditions appropriate for other sensitive behavioral measures, including constant ambient temperature and a regular circadian lighting pattern. Startle is best measured in the
dark phase of a rat’s circadian cycle ...
Anatomy & Physiology I
... سیستم عصبی، اعضای داخلی، در رگ های خون معلومات را درباره محیط داخلی تهیه میکند سیاله ها معموال بصورت شعوری در دریافت نمی گرددProprioreciptors
گوش داخلی موقعیت دارد، مفاصل، اوتار، در عضالت موقعیت و حرکت مفاصل و موازنه، طول و کشش عضله، در مورد موقعیت بدنمعلومات تهیه میکند ...
Sensors for impossible stimuli may solve the stereo correspondence
... in the arrangement of their ON and OFF regions, but not in retinal
position, and position disparity (Fig. 1b), in which left and right-eye
receptive fields differ in their position on the retina, but not in their
profile2. Several recent studies in V13–6 have concluded that most
Rapid Translocation of Zn 2+ from Nerve Terminals
... placement of the stimulation electrodes. Scale bars are 100 m. A3: hilus (H) of the hippocampus. o, region where images were
acquired. 夹, the placement of electrode. DG, dentate gyrus. B: electrical stimulation (100 Hz for 5 s) evoked rapid release of Zn2⫹
from neuronal terminals measured by change ...
Independent component analysis of neural populations from
... In our experiments, the animals were required to be well anesthetized during the whole measurement. Thus, the analysis
presented in this paper is not concerned with changes in the state of the animal, e.g. sleep vs. wake, or the level of activity. It
could be enlightening to perform the same analysi ...
PDF - Bentham Open
... dlPFC, dmPFC, PCC, and IPL activity such that, as trait
anxiety level increased the threat-related fMRI signal
response within these brain areas increased . These
studies suggest that anxiety level influences the magnitude of
anticipatory and threat-related brain activation, which in turn
Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes
... the functions that are associated with a particular pattern
of brain activation. In our view, the advancement of the
field depends largely on the future use of innovative behavioral techniques, the use of which is absolutely necessary
to tap into the mechanisms that underlie vestibular cortical
Analysis of sleep spindles and model of their generation
... 2.6 Topographic distribution of relation between sleep spindles
amplitude and frequency. Each dot corresponds to one spindle. Positions of plots correspond to arrangement of electrodes
in 10/20 system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Topographical distribution of sleep spindle ...
Selective stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson`s
... the cortico-basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit, the STN plays an important role in not
only motor, but also in cognitive and limbic processes. Classically the STN is divided into
three subregions: a motor, limbic and associative part (Hamani, et al., 2004, Temel, et
The STN neuronal ...
Morphometric analysis of neural tissue following the
... through this phase of my education. Of course, my lab mates deserve recognition for "being
there" during the good times and the bad. In absolutely no particular order: Kev, for k i n g the
Karnloops version of myself; Sheila for being the kichin the butt that 'I needed on occasion;
Paul for being th ...
Modulation of premotor circuits controlling locomotor activity by
... Locomotion is one of the most vivid expressions of the central nervous system in action.
Looking at people walking in the street or the ballet dancer on the stage, motion seems
effortless to the point that many movements are almost executed unconsciously. Indeed, the
generation of sophisticated moto ...
Neural mechanisms of stimulus generalization in auditory fear
... pairings with a footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) and comes to
elicit responses characteristically elicited by threatening stimuli. In this
behavioral paradigm, the amygdala has been identified has a key
neural substrate for associative fear learning, and the site where
unconditioned stimuli (U ...
Functional Microarchitecture of Cat Primary Visual Cortex
... more clustered than would be expected from a random distribution. However, preferred phase,
direction selectivity, relative modulation (F1/DC), and spatial frequency preference and tuning
width showed no such clustering. By investigating the temporal patterns of neighbouring neurons in response to m ...
Local Field Potentials Related to Bimanual Movements in the
... potentials in motor cortex has focused on the relationship of synchronous oscillations to movement and to
single unit activity (Sanes and Donoghue, 1993;Eckhorn and Obermueller, 1993;Murthy and Fetz,
1996a;Baker et al., 1999), but the character of the evoked potential in this area and its relationsh ...
The Formation of Specific Synaptic Connections Between Muscle
... transferred to a recording chamber where it was perfused with oxygenated saline. The dissection was frequently made 16-18 hr before recordings were made, in which case the cord was kept perfused at 4°C;
this procedure did not cause any decrement in synaptic potential amplitudes. Intracellular record ...
Functional Organization of the Gustatory System in the Brains of
... This reproduction was made from a copy of a m anuscript sent to u s for publication
and microfilming. While the m ost advanced technology has been used to pho
tograph and reproduce this m anuscript, the quality of the reproduction is heavily
dependent upon the quality of the material submitted. Pag ...
An evoked potential or evoked response is an electrical potential recorded from the nervous system of a human or other animal following presentation of a stimulus, as distinct from spontaneous potentials as detected by electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), or other electrophysiological recording method.Evoked potential amplitudes tend to be low, ranging from less than a microvolt to several microvolts, compared to tens of microvolts for EEG, millivolts for EMG, and often close to a volt for ECG. To resolve these low-amplitude potentials against the background of ongoing EEG, ECG, EMG, and other biological signals and ambient noise, signal averaging is usually required. The signal is time-locked to the stimulus and most of the noise occurs randomly, allowing the noise to be averaged out with averaging of repeated responses.Signals can be recorded from cerebral cortex, brain stem, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Usually the term ""evoked potential"" is reserved for responses involving either recording from, or stimulation of, central nervous system structures. Thus evoked compound motor action potentials (CMAP) or sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) as used in nerve conduction studies (NCS) are generally not thought of as evoked potentials, though they do meet the above definition.