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Transcript
Memory and Cognition
When studying material for tests/quizzes, what techniques
or strategies do you use to remember the information?
Memory

The process by which information is encoded, stored,
and retrieved
Hippocampus
=
Memory
Episodic - events
Explicit – specific
information
Memory
Implicit – skills,
procedures
Semantic –
general
knowledge
Flashbulb Memories

Clear memories of emotionally significant events (episodic)
Memory Processes
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Encoding

Translation of info into a form that can be stored in memory
OTTFFSSENT
Encoding

Visual coding – create a mental picture/image

Acoustic coding – repetition out loud to sequence

Semantic coding – attempt to make/assign meaning
Which penny is a REAL penny?
A
Storage

The maintenance of encoded information over time



Maintenance rehearsal: repetition of new info to avoid
forgetting
Elaborative rehearsal: creating a link between new and old
info
Memory is organized into groups/classes  like a
filing cabinet
Retrieval

Recalling info from memory storage

Write the letters you attempted to memorize a few
slides ago…

How did you remember these letters?

Success of retrieval relies on proper encoding and
storage.
Retrieval

Context-dependent memories

info is more easily retrieved in the same
context in which it was encoded and
stored
3 Stages of Memory
Sensory
Memory
Forgetting
Attention
Short Term
Memory
Forgetting
Rehearsal
Long Term
Memory
Forgetting
Sensory Memory

Iconic – mental images of visual stimuli

Echoic – traces of sounds are held and can be retrieved
for a few seconds
Short Term Memory

AKA “working memory”

7 +/- 2 pieces of info at a time

Chunking - organization of items into meaningful or
manageable units


How could you have chunked OTTFFSSENT?
Interference - when new info takes the place of other info
in short term memory
Long Term Memory

Info stored by rehearsal

Unlimited, but we do not remember everything that we
have ever experienced/learned

We reconstruct and shape memories to reflect the way in
which we perceive the world.

Loftus Car Crash and Eye Witnesses
Types of Retrieval

Recognition: identifying info you have already encountered


Recall: retrieval of learned info


Multiple choice tests
Short answer/essays
Relearning: learning material a 2nd time

Test corrections
Types of Forgetting

Decay: fading of memories overtime

Amnesia: loss of memory, usually tied
to a brain injury or biological
problem
How to Improve Your Memory

Maintenance rehearsal


Elaborative rehearsal


Make connections to past info
Use mnemonic devices –
any type of memory aid


Flashcards, repetition
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt
Sally
Form unusual associations

Peg method
Marshmallow Challenge!!!!

Build the Tallest Freestanding Structure: The winning team is the one
that has the tallest structure measured from the table top surface to the
top of the marshmallow. That means the structure cannot be suspended
from a higher structure, like a chair, ceiling or chandelier.

The Entire Marshmallow Must be on Top: The entire marshmallow
needs to be on the top of the structure. Cutting or eating part of the
marshmallow disqualifies the team.

Use as Much or as Little of the Kit: The team can use as many or as
few of the 20 spaghetti sticks, as much or as little of the string or tape. The
team cannot use the paper bag as part of their structure.

Break up the Spaghetti, String or Tape: Teams are free to break the
spaghetti, cut up the tape and string to create new structures.

The Challenge Lasts 18 minutes: Teams cannot hold on to the
structure when the time runs out. Those touching or supporting the
structure at the end of the exercise will be disqualified.
Cognition



AKA “thinking”
Manipulating info stored in
memory to create new
info
Metacognition - thinking
about thinking


Awareness of your own
thought processes
We think to solve
problems…
Problem Solving

The problem dictates the solving method used.

Algorithm – specific step-by-step procedure that always
solves a particular problem.



EX: math formulas, a cooking recipe
Time-consuming but always right
Heuristic – “rules of thumb,” shortcuts in problem solving
that work most, but not all, of the time


EX: common sense
Fast but sometimes wrong
Insight

Sudden understanding
Incubation

Arriving at a conclusion after setting a problem aside

“Sleep on it…”
Functional Fixedness

The tendency to think of an object as being useful for only the
function that the object is usually used for
Creativity

The capacity to use info and abilities in
a new or original way

Convergent thinking - thinking
limited to available facts

Divergent thinking - thinking that
attempts to generate multiple solutions
to a problem