... Long-term Potentiation (LTP) – both
short and long-term changes in the brain
CHAPTER SIX Memory The experience of pain cannot be separated
... its role in the generation of illness, painful and otherwise.
A life event, sufficient in meaning to command attention, invokes a change within the
brain. Neurons dedicated to the acquisition of memory are recruited (the brain has enormous
reserves of cells for this purpose) and they undergo a trans ...
Mean - Fitchburg State University
... recognition test is superior to that on a recall test (Balota &
Neely ,1980; Petrusic & Dillon, 1972). During a recognition
test, a participant sees a word or answer and picks it out from
others, because it looks familiar. During a recall task, the
participant has to generate the information from lo ...
Stages of Memory
... To retrieve a specific memory from the web of
associations, you must first activate one of the
strands that leads to it. This process is called
Biological Basis of Memory
... 1. Retrograde amnesia—inability to remember past
common after head injury
Reason for this is it may disrupt:
– gradual, physical process of converting a long-term
memory to a stable and enduring memory code.
o If disturbed before the process is
, memory could be lost.
2. Antero ...
... • Procedural memories seem to be
stored in the cerebellum
• PET scans suggest short-term
memories are stored in the
prefrontal cortex and temporal
– Changes in structure and functioning
of neurons when a memory is formed
Brain Jeopardy Game
... This short-term memory
component is where we
put information until
we decide what to do
Cognitive Neuroscience of Language: 18: Memory and language
... vocabulary learning, although it need not be seen
as specifically linguistic
Polarities such as abstractionist vs episodic,
amodal vs modality-specific, need to be cashed
out neuroanatomically, rather than one pole of
the relationship being pursued
... • Lesioned amygdala, hippocampus and perirhinal
cortex in temporal lobe of monkeys and found
that they could no longer perform in recognition
• Later showed that perirhinal cortex is most
important for new memory; temporary storage?
Flashbulb memory etc hand out File
... attack remembered fewer of the 40
items of information about the event than a control group who saw a less stressful
version. As witnessing a real crime is probably more stressful than taking part in an
experiment, memory accuracy may well be even more affected in real life.
However, a study by Yuil ...
... Impact of Background Knowledge on Memory
Expertise and Memory
Memory for a Baseball Game
(Hi vs Low Knowledge)
The Self-Reference Effect
Module 3 - socialscienceteacher
... • Overview: Forgetting
– refers to the inability to retrieve, recall, or
recognize information that was stored or is still
stored in long-term memory
– according to Freud, repression is a mental
process that automatically hides emotionally
threatening or anxiety-producing information i ...
“Describe the neuroanatomy of and neural processes related to
... “Describe the neuroanatomy of and neural processes related to learning based on current
The difference between learning and memory is rather subtle; learning is the process by
which new information and abilities are incorporated into one’s mind, whereas memory is the
way in which that i ...
... from the mass of stimuli around us
• Involves audio and/or visual senses
• Information at the interface should be structured to
The stress model of Yerkes-Dodson law suggests that at low and
... support their argument by presenting research that demonstrates the paradigm of how false
memory can be created. In order to get a clearer understanding of how events in a person’s life
may result in false memories, many researchers conduct experimental research in controlled
environments (Anastasi ...
Consciousness, Thought, and Memory
... Memory is the storage and retrieval of information. The
two stages of memory are short term (STM) and long
term (LTM). STM is the first step, and is limited to seven
or eight chunks of information. Some 5% of sensory
input is transferred to the STM. The LTM is of limitless
capacity, but its ability ...
Spatial Working Memory
... associated with prefrontal cortex, especially lateral prefrontal cortex. Dorso-lateral
prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as opposed to ventral PFC, has been associated more with
spatial memory, in particular in the right hemisphere. However, some current
investigators associated DLPFC more with executive c ...
Scaling Laws of Memory Retrieval
... Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Memory notes Explaining memory Learning required memorisation
... The surgery left him with a memory problem. He could not remember things he experienced after
He was incapable of forming long-term episodic (personal events) memories or semantic (general
knowledge) memories. He could not remember his doctor’s names and each time had to be
Before Milgram`s study on obedience, a team of psychiatrists
... b) changed its properties after it was recorded such that it was eventually accessible.
c) Often, parents and their adult children disagree on the details of past events.
d) Asking a leading question such as ‘what was the speed of the car before it
smashed?’ results in some subjects falsely recallin ...
Misattribution of memory
Memory plays an important role in a number of aspects of our everyday lives and allows us to recall past experiences, navigate our environments, and learn new tasks. From this view, information about a source of memory is assumed to contain certain characteristics that reflect the conditions under which the memory representations were attained. Judgments about these sources are made by evaluating the amount and nature of the characteristics. The accuracy of their recall varies depending on the circumstances at which they are retrieved. Generally speaking, misattribution of memory involves source details retained in memory but erroneously attributing a recollection or idea to the wrong source. Misattribution is likely to occur when individuals are unable to monitor and control the influence of their attitudes, toward their judgments, at the time of retrieval. Thus, memory is adapted to retain information that is most likely to be needed in the environment in which it operates. Therefore, any misattribution observed is likely to be a reflection of current attitudes.Misattribution is divided into three components; cryptomnesia, false memories, and source confusion. It was originally noted as one of Daniel Schacter's, The Seven Sins of Memory. His book, The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers, identifies misattribution as a type of memory distortion or inaccuracy. For example, people may assert that they saw a face in one context when they actually encountered it in another.