Fear Conditioning and Reconsolidation
... snakes is hiking through the woods and gets attacked by a snake (unconditioned stimulus or
‘US’) in a patch of leaves, which causes a rustling sound (conditioned stimulus or ‘CS’), their
fear response might manifest in paralyzing or freezing behavior (unconditioned response or
‘UR’). Because of the ...
EMDR – more than just a therapy for PTSD?
... among the various associations that arise
internally during the sets of eye
movements, which often leads to an
increase in the sense of mastery in being
able to go back and forth between
experiencing the event and the ‘here and
now’. This experience of mastery and
efficacy may therefore become encod ...
Interplay between Syntax and Semantics during Sentence
... of words (see Vosse & Kempen, 2000 for a computational model). The approach taken here was to exploit
the fact that different types of electrophysiological
brain activity (i.e., event-related brain potentials [ERPs])
have been shown to honor the distinction between the
processing of syntactic and se ...
Desire for amputation of a limb: paraphilia, psychosis, or a new type
... that put the subject at risk of death and one-third enlisting a surgeon to amputate their healthy
limb. The most common reported reason for wanting an amputation was the subject’s feeling that
it would correct a mismatch between the person’s anatomy and sense of his or her ‘true ’ self
(identity). N ...
... the development of computers.
b. extended over a long period of time, beginning in the early part of the century, in reaction to
Wundt’s introspection experiments.
c. was a gradual process that occurred over a few decades.
d. was not really necessary because the study of the mind has been a constan ...
How Do We Know That We Know? The Accessibility Model
... has much in common with the notion of a "fluency heuristic"
that is assumed to underlie the experience of familiarity. According to this position, the subjective experience of remembering is not simply a product of a memory trace but instead relies
on an inference. The cues for that inference are to ...
... UCS), becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that in itself produces the physiological reaction. The process of conditioning was first reported by Ivan
Pavlov in 1907 and is sometimes simply called Pavlovian conditioning
(Pavlov, 1927). When the UCS involved elicits a physiological fear reaction,
the p ...
Words in the brain`s language
... activity, they will be a stronger influence on each other. This
implies that these neurons will be more likely to act together as a group. Hebb (1949) calls such anatomically and
functionally connected neuron groups “cell assemblies.”
The strong within-assembly connections are likely to have
two imp ...
Strong items get suppressed, weak items do not: The role of item
... ones. However, if mainly strong items are subject to interference effects, the reversed order would be more efficient. Evidence for such a reversed order in free recall
has arisen from the results of a recent study by Wixted,
Ghadisha, and Vera (1997). They found that subjects recalled a list’s stro ...
IMAGERY PERSPECTIVE AND MEMORY RECALL 1 Accepted for
... perspective imagery is related to a greater sense of ‘reliving’ and subjective emotionality (see
also Eich et al., 2009). Additionally we hypothesized that the posterior cingulate cortex/
precuneus would show greater activity during observer perspective imagery as compared to
field perspective image ...
... Sam's psychology professor, Dr. Smith, recruited him to serve as a research assistant. Sam's job was
to teach study participants a new strategy for studying textbook material. Experimental group
participants were supposed to be taught the new strategy, while control group participants were to be
... – Strategies—the use of mental activities to improve the
processing of information—improve in these areas:
• Organization: More likely to be used by older
children and adults.
• Elaboration: Adolescents are more likely to use
elaboration spontaneously than children.
• Imagery: Encouraging children t ...
do simultaneously presented visual and auditory
... attention. In two conditions, participants were presented with auditory and visual stimuli that
conveyed the same information (consistent), but they were instructed to attend to either the
auditory or the visual stimulus. In the other two conditions, the auditory and visual stimuli
conveyed differen ...
The Wick in the Candle of Learning
... normalized (i.e., the individual’s mean curiosity was subtracted
from each rating, and the resulting value was divided by that
individual’s standard deviation). The confidence scale ranged
from 0 to 100%, but was rescaled to range from 0 to 1. Verbal or
typed responses are not easy to collect in a s ...
Hebb repetition learning 1 VISUAL AND PHONOLOGICAL HEBB
... spatial tapping-order is maintained even though the to-be-typed digit-sequence
is changed. After the participant had clicked the appropriate number of
responses, they were able to advance to the next trial by pressing the spacebar.
For the block involving CA, participants were required to repeat the ...
Magnitude of the Object Recognition Deficit
... sample object). The discrimination ratio, D2 (Ennaceur & Delacour, 1988) is the difference in time spent exploring the novel and
familiar objects divided by the total time spent exploring objects in
the test phase (i.e., D1 divided by total exploration).
These two measures of discrimination were cal ...
Cognitive Functions in Depression and Anxiety
... depression diagnoses. The overall conclusion that can be drawn from the thesis is that depression
in particular, but also anxiety, are serious conditions that affect cognitive functioning indicating
that these disorders are associated with brain dysfunction. This, in turn, may have a large negative
Revealing Past Memories: Proactive Interference
... Except for the study examining state-dependent effects, all rats received
no more than one ketamine treatment per week. All procedures were
performed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Institutional
Animal Care and Use Committee of University of Connecticut and National Institutes of ...
Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal–anterior thalamic
... that same object along with a novel or less familiar object.
Selection of the novel object (nonmatching) is rewarded in
DNMS, whereas in delayed matching-to-sample (DMS)
selection of the familiar object is rewarded. In the “trialunique” version of DNMS and DMS both the novel and
the familiar objects ...
DSM-5 QUIZ QUESTIONS (Word docx version)
... True/False Quiz questions on the DSM-5
These questions were designed to guide your learning about changes and important points in the DSM5. You can get 15 CE credits for only $69 by taking this quiz at PsychContinuingEd.com. You enter your
answers to the quiz questions online in our Moodle. Note: th ...
Isolated Retrograde Amnesia
... complex with other cortical structures, the experience of an
event is mediated and by this process multiple traces are
formed over time. Nadel and Moscovitch (1997) proposed
that older memories require more memory traces compared
with recent memories and that successful retrieval is facilitated
by a ...
Updating verbal and visuospatial working memory: Are the
... passive phonological short-term store. Another study
used position emission tomography (PET) to investigate
the cortical regions for the maintenance of spatial versus
phonological information in working memory. They
found that bilateral anterior and posterior intraparietal
sulcus, as well as rig ...
Laminar Cortical Dynamics of Cognitive and Motor Working Memory
... D’Esposito, 2003). LIST PARSE simulates monkey sensory-motor data with the same model
that it uses to simulate the human cognitive data. It also leads to a new proposal for how to
explain cognitive and neurophysiological data showing conjunctive coding of item, order, and
list position in a list.
Memory, aging and external memory aids
... Executive functions are important when speaking about memory functioning and performance.
Executive functions is a broad term involving mechanisms such as coordination, monitoring,
selection, set-switching, attention control and inhibition control. All of these mechanisms are said
to be important fo ...
Misattribution of memory
Memory plays an important role in a number of aspects of our everyday lives and allows us to recall past experiences, navigate our environments, and learn new tasks. From this view, information about a source of memory is assumed to contain certain characteristics that reflect the conditions under which the memory representations were attained. Judgments about these sources are made by evaluating the amount and nature of the characteristics. The accuracy of their recall varies depending on the circumstances at which they are retrieved. Generally speaking, misattribution of memory involves source details retained in memory but erroneously attributing a recollection or idea to the wrong source. Misattribution is likely to occur when individuals are unable to monitor and control the influence of their attitudes, toward their judgments, at the time of retrieval. Thus, memory is adapted to retain information that is most likely to be needed in the environment in which it operates. Therefore, any misattribution observed is likely to be a reflection of current attitudes.Misattribution is divided into three components; cryptomnesia, false memories, and source confusion. It was originally noted as one of Daniel Schacter's, The Seven Sins of Memory. His book, The Seven Sins of Memory: How the Mind Forgets and Remembers, identifies misattribution as a type of memory distortion or inaccuracy. For example, people may assert that they saw a face in one context when they actually encountered it in another.