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Transcript
Slide 1
8—Information Processing
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Information-Processing Approach
Attention
Memory
Thinking
Metacognition
Summary
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
• The Information-Processing Approach to
Development
– The information-processing approach focuses on how
children process information about their world.
– The approach analyzes how children manipulate
information, monitor it, and create strategies for
handling it.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
• The Information-Processing Approach
(continued)
– Effective information processing involves attention,
memory, and thinking.
– The flow of information takes many routes, processes
may overlap, and they do not always occur in the same
direction.
– A computer metaphor can help to understand the
process and the limitations, although children’s
cognitive development results from their ability to
overcome processing limitations.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
A Basic, Simplified Model of Information
Processing
• Refer to Figure 8.1
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
• Cognitive Resources: Capacity and Speed
of Processing Information
– Developmental changes in information processing are
influenced by increases in capacity and speed of
processing, or cognitive resources.
• Increase in capacity improves processing of
information.
• Reaction-time tasks are used to assess processing
speed.
• Speed improves throughout childhood and
adolescence.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
• Mechanisms of Change
– Robert Siegler (1998) described three mechanisms that
work together to create changes in children’s cognitive
skills:
• Encoding: The process by which information gets
into memory.
• Automaticity: The ability to process information
with little or no effort.
• Strategy construction: The creation of new
procedures for processing information.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
• Mechanisms of Change (continued)
– Children’s information is characterized by selfmodification: Children learn to use what they have
learned in previous circumstances to adapt their
responses to new situations.
• Metacognition: Cognition about cognition, or
“knowing about knowing.”
• Siegler: Children play an active role in their
cognitive development.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
• Comparison with Piaget’s Theory—Like Piaget:
– Some information-processing psychologists are
constructivist and see children as directing their own
cognitive development.
– Information-processing psychologists describe ways
in which children do and do not understand
important concepts at different points in life and
explain how more advanced understanding grows
out of less advanced concepts.
– Information-processing psychologists emphasize
the impact that existing understanding has on the
ability to acquire new understanding.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
The Information-Processing
Approach
• Comparison with Piaget’s Theory—Unlike
Piaget:
– Information-processing developmentalists view
development as a gradually increasing capacity for
processing information, which allows children to
acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills,
rather than knowledge occurring abruptly in distinct
stages.
– Focuses on more precise analysis of change and on the
contributions of ongoing cognitive activity.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect: Learning
Goal 1
• Explain the information-processing
approach
– Review
• What is the information-processing approach to
development?
• How do capacity and processing speed change
developmentally?
• What are three important mechanisms of change
involved in information processing?
• How can the information-processing approach be
compared to Piaget’s theory?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect: Learning
Goal 1
– Reflect
• In terms of ability to learn, are there similarities
between how children process information and how
a computer does? What might be some differences
in the way that children and computers process
information?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Attention
• What Is Attention?
– Attention: The focusing of mental resources.
• It improves cognitive processing for many tasks.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Attention
• What Is Attention? (continued)
– Attention is allocated in different ways:
• Sustained attention (vigilance): The state of
readiness to detect and respond to small changes
occurring at random times in the environment.
• Selective attention: Focusing on a specific relevant
aspect of experience while ignoring those that are
irrelevant.
• Divided attention: Concentrating on more than one
activity at the same time.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Attention
• Infancy
– Newborns can pay attention to a contour; older infants
scan patterns more thoroughly.
– 4-month-old infants can selectively attend to an object
and sustain their attention.
– Infants’ attention is strongly governed by novelty and
habituation.
• Habituation: Decreased responsiveness to a
stimulus after repeated presentations.
• Dishabituation: Recovery of a habituated response
after a change in stimulation .
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Attention
• Childhood and Adolescence
– Older children and more socially advantaged children
are better at resisting interference of competing
demands and at focusing attention.
– Visual attention to television dramatically increases in
the preschool years.
– Preschoolers’ attention is related to achievement and
social skills.
– The shift to cognitive control of attention after age 6 or
7 allows children to pay more attention to relevant
features than salient features of a task.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Attention
• Childhood and Adolescence (continued)
– The ability to direct selective attention, divide attention,
and shift attention improves as children get older.
– Improvements may be due to an increase in cognitive
resources, automaticity, or increased skill at directing
resources.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect: Learning
Goal 2
• Define attention and outline its
developmental changes
– Review
• What is attention?
• How does attention develop in infancy?
• How does attention develop in childhood and
adolescence?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect: Learning
Goal 2
– Reflect
• Imagine that you are an elementary school teacher.
Devise some strategies to help children pay attention
in class.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• What Is Memory?
– Memory is the retention of information over
time.
– Processes and Types of Memory
• The basic processes required for memory are
encoding, storage, and retrieval.
• Short-term memory has a limited capacity for
retaining information.
• Long-term memory is a relatively permanent and
unlimited type of memory.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
Processing Information in Memory
• Refer to Figure 8.2
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
– Processes and Types of Memory (continued)
• Working memory is a mental “workbench” where
information is manipulated and assembled.
• Baddeley’s model of working memory has two
short-term stores, one for speech and one for visual
and spatial information, plus a central executive
that monitors and controls the system.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
Working Memory
• Refer to Figure 8.3
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• What Is Memory? (continued)
– Constructing Memories
• Schema theory: People mold memories to fit
information that already exists in their minds; the
process is guided by schemas, mental frameworks
that organize concepts and information.
• Fuzzy trace theory: When individuals encode
information they create a verbatim memory trace
(precise detail) and a fuzzy trace or gist (the central
idea).
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• What Is Memory? (continued)
– Content Knowledge and Expertise
• Experts are better than novices at:
– Detecting features and meaningful patterns of
information
– Accumulating more content knowledge and
organizing it effectively
– Retrieving important aspects of knowledge with
little effort
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
– Content Knowledge and Expertise
(continued)
• Experts use chunking—grouping bits of
information into a higher-order unit that is
remembered as a whole.
• Experts have more elaborate networks of
information.
• Novices have to allocate considerable time to the
task at hand, which restricts their time for
comprehension.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
Memory for Numbers and Chess Pieces
• Refer to Figure 8.4
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• Infancy
– First Memories
• Rovee-Collier: Infants of 2 to 6 months remember
perceptual-motor information through ages 1-1/2 to
2.
• Mandler: Infants in Rovee-Collier’s experiments
display only implicit memory, i.e., memories of
skills and routine procedures that are performed
automatically without conscious recollection.
• Explicit memory, conscious memory of facts and
experiences, does not occur until the second half of
the first year.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
The Technique Used in Rovee-Collier’s
Investigation of Infant Memory
• Refer to Figure 8.5
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• Infancy
– Infantile (Childhood) Amnesia
• Adults’ inability to remember little if anything from
the first 3 years of their life.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• Childhood and Adolescence
– Young children remember a great deal of information if
given appropriate cues and prompts, but less than adults
because they are less expert in most areas.
– Memory span tasks suggest that short-term memory
increases during childhood.
• Speed of processing increases.
• Rehearsal of information improves.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
Developmental Changes in Memory Span
• Refer to Figure 8.6
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• Childhood and Adolescence (continued)
– Strategies—the use of mental activities to improve the
processing of information—improve in these areas:
• Organization: More likely to be used by older
children and adults.
• Elaboration: Adolescents are more likely to use
elaboration spontaneously than children.
• Imagery: Encouraging children to use imagery to
remember verbal information works better for older
children than younger children.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
Imagery and Memory of Verbal Information
• Refer to Figure 8.7
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
• Childhood and Adolescence (continued)
– Reconstructive Memory and Children as
Eyewitnesses
• Children’s memories are constructive and
reconstructive.
• Children’s schemas affect how they encode, store,
and retrieve memories.
• Reconstruction and distortion are apparent in
eyewitness testimony at trials.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
– Reconstructive Memory and Children as
Eyewitnesses (continued)
• Factors that influence the accuracy of young
children’s memory:
– Age differences in children’s susceptibility to
suggestion
– Individual differences in susceptibility
– Interviewing techniques that produce substantial
distortions about highly salient events
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Memory
Suggestibility of Children at Different Grade
Levels
• Refer to Figure 8.8
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect:
Learning Goal 3
• Describe what memory is and how it
changes
– Review
• What is memory? What are some important
processes and types of memory?
• How does memory develop in infancy?
• How does memory change in childhood?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect:
Learning Goal 3
– Reflect
• What is your earliest memory? Why do you think
you remember this particular situation?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• What Is Thinking?
– Thinking
• Manipulating and transforming information in
memory.
• In Baddeley’s model of working memory, thinking
is the job of the central executive.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Infancy
– Concepts are categories that group objects, events, and
characteristics on the basis of common properties.
– Infants form concepts early in their development; as
young as 3 months they form categories on the basis of
perceptual features.
– Jean Mandler: Early categorizations are best described
as perceptual categorizations, which are based on
similar perceptual features of objects and parts of
objects; the ability to form conceptual categories,
characterized by perceptual variability, begins around 7
to 9 months of age.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Childhood
– Critical thinking: Thinking reflectively and
productively, and evaluating the evidence.
– Jacqueline and Martin Brooks: Few schools teach
students to think critically; instead they push for a
single correct answer and have students recite, define,
describe, state, and list.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Childhood—Critical Thinkers:
– Ask not only what happened, but how and why.
– Examine “facts” for supporting evidence
– Argue rationally rather than emotionally.
– Recognize that there may be more than one good
answer or explanation.
– Compare various answers to find the best one.
– Evaluate what is said rather than accepting it as
truth.
– Ask questions and speculate beyond what is known
to create new ideas and new information.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Childhood—Critical Thinking (continued)
– Brown and Campione’s “Fostering a Community of
Learners” (FCL) program encourages reflection and
discussion including:
• Online consultation
• Reciprocal teaching, a teaching method in which
students take turns leading small-group discussions
• Using adults as role models
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Scientific Thinking
– Scientific reasoning often is aimed at identifying causal
relations, which children typically do.
• Children’s understanding of how events are caused
carries more weight in their causal inferences than
whether the cause happened immediately before
the event.
• Unlike scientists, children are more influenced by
happenstance than overall patterns, and they
maintain old theories regardless of the evidence.
• Children also have difficulty designing experiments
that distinguish among alternative causes.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Solving Problems
– Problem solving: Finding an appropriate way to attain
a goal.
• Use rules to solve problems.
• Use analogies to solve problems.
– Analogies involve correspondence in some
respects between things that are dissimilar.
• Use strategies to solve problems.
– Teachers should model strategies, verbalize the
steps, and guide the children to practice the
strategy.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
The Type of Balance Scale Used by Siegler
(1976)
• Refer to Figure 8.9
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Adolescence
– Critical thinking skills are unlikely to mature in
adolescence if a solid basis of fundamental skills is not
developed in childhood.
– Cognitive changes in adolescence include:
• Increased speed, automaticity, and capacity of
information processing.
• More knowledge in a variety of domains.
• Increased ability to construct new combinations of
knowledge.
• Greater range/more spontaneous use of strategies.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Thinking
• Adolescence
– Decision making (about the future, friends, education,
relationships, etc.) increases in adolescence.
– Older adolescents are more competent than younger
adolescents, who are more competent than children.
– Adolescents generate more options, use multiple
perspectives, anticipate consequences, and consider the
credibility of sources.
– Emotions are likely to hamper decision-making ability.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect:
Learning Goal 4
• Characterize thinking and its developmental
changes
– Review
• What is thinking?
• Can children engage in critical and scientific
thinking? What are some ways that children solve
problems?
• What are some changes in thinking during
adolescence?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect:
Learning Goal 4
– Reflect
• Some experts lament that few schools teach students
to think critically. Does your own experience
support this view? If you agree with the experts,
why is critical thinking not more widely or
effectively taught?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• What Is Metacognition?
– Metacognition is cognition about cognition, or
“knowing about knowing.”
– Metacognition includes knowledge about when and
where to use particular strategies for learning or for
solving problems.
– Metamemory, individuals’ knowledge about memory,
includes general knowledge about memory and
knowledge about one’s own memory.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• The Child’s Theory of Mind
– Theory of mind
• Awareness of one’s own mental processes and the
mental processes of others
– At ages 2 to 3, children begin to understand
perceptions, desires, and emotions, but they have only a
minimal understanding of how mental life is linked to
behavior.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• The Child’s Theory of Mind (continued)
– By age 4 to 5, children begin to realize that the mind
can represent objects and events accurately or
inaccurately.
• False beliefs: By the time they are 5 years old, most
children realize that people have beliefs that are not
true.
• After the preschool years children have a deepening
appreciation of the mind itself rather than merely of
mental states.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
Developmental Changes in False-Belief
Performance
• Refer to Figure 8.10
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• The Child’s Theory of Mind (continued)
– By middle and late childhood children see the mind as
an active constructor of knowledge.
– In middle and late childhood children move from
understanding that beliefs can be false to an
understanding of beliefs and mind as “interpretive.”
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• Metacognition in Children and Adolescents
– By 5 or 6, children know that familiar items are easier
to learn than unfamiliar ones, shorts lists are easier than
long lists, recognition is easier than recall, and
forgetting becomes more likely over time.
– By fifth grade, students understand that gist recall is
easier than verbatim recall.
– Preschoolers’ opinion of their memory abilities is
inflated; in the elementary school years, evaluations of
memory skills are more realistic.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• Metacognition in Children and Adolescents
(continued)
– By 7 or 8, children appreciate the importance of cueing
for memory.
– Elementary-school-aged children improve in the
metacognitive ability of consciously monitoring and
controlling their thinking processes.
– Self-regulatory learning: Self-generating and selfmonitoring thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to reach a
goal.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• Metacognition in Children and Adolescents
(continued)
– Adolescents are more likely than children to manage
and monitor their thinking.
– Adolescents are more introspective than children,
turning inward to examine their thoughts and emotions,
which helps them evaluate and monitor their academic
learning.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
• A Model of Self-Regulatory Learning
– Zimmerman, Bonner, and Kovach (1996) developed a
model for turning low-self-regulatory students into
students who engage in these multistep strategies:
1. Self-evaluation and self monitoring
2. Goal setting and strategic planning
3. Putting a plan into action and monitoring it
4. Monitoring outcomes and refining strategies
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Metacognition
A Model of Self-Regulatory Learning
• Refer to Figure 8.11
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect:
Learning Goal 5
• Define metacognition and summarize its
developmental changes
– Review
• What is metacognition?
• How does the child’s theory of mind change during
the preschool years?
• How does metacognition change during childhood
and adolescence?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Review and Reflect:
Learning Goal 5
– Reflect
• How might metacognition be involved in the ability
of adolescents to have better study skills than
children?
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• The information-processing approach analyzes how
individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and create
strategies for handling it.
• Attention, memory, and thinking are involved in effective
information processing.
• The computer is a model for how humans process
information.
• The information-processing approach examines beliefs that
children’s cognitive development results from their ability
to overcome processing limitations.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• Cognitive resources (capacity and speed of processing)
increase across childhood and adolescence.
• Siegler states three important mechanisms are encoding,
automaticity, and strategy construction.
• Children’s information processing is characterized by selfmodification, which involves metacognition.
• The information-processing approach sees development as
a gradually increasing capacity for processing information,
not as distinct stages.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• Attention is focusing mental resources.
• Three ways to allocate attention are sustained attention,
selective attention, and divided attention.
• Newborns can fixate on a contour; older infants scan a
pattern more thoroughly. Attention in infancy is studied
through habituation and dishabituation.
• Preschoolers attend to salient stimuli; by age 6 or 7, there
is a shift to more cognitive control of attention.
• Selective attention improves through childhood and
adolescence.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• Memory is the retention of information over time.
• Short-term memory involves retention of information for
up to 15–30 seconds, assuming no rehearsal; long-term
memory is relatively permanent and unlimited.
• Working memory is a kind of “mental workbench” for
manipulating and assembling information when making
decisions, solving problems, and comprehending language.
• People construct and reconstruct their memories.
• Schema theory states that people mold memories to fit
information that already exists.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• Fuzzy trace theory states that memory is best understood
by considering verbatim memory, trace, and gist.
• Infants as young as 2 to 3 months display implicit memory
(no conscious recollections); but explicit memory does not
emerge until the second half of the first year.
• Infantile amnesia describes the fact that adults rarely
remember anything occurring prior to 3 years of age.
• Use of cues and prompts helps younger children remember
a great deal of information.
• As children get older their memory improves as they use
more gist, organization, elaboration, and imagery.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• A current interest focuses on how accurate children’s longterm memories are and the implications of this accuracy
for children as eyewitnesses.
• Thinking involves manipulating and transforming
information in memory.
• Studies of concept formation and categorization suggest
that infants form concepts early in their development, but
they do not form conceptual categories until they are 7 to 9
months old.
• Concepts become more differentiated over the first 2 years
of life.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• Critical thinking involves thinking reflectively and
productively and evaluating the evidence.
• Schools do not teach critical thinking.
• Children have some similarities to scientists, but
many differences as well.
• The important aspects of solving problems involve
using strategies, using rules, and using analogies.
• Adolescence is an important transitional period in
critical thinking and a time when decision making
increases.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• Metacognition is cognition about cognition, or knowing
about knowing.
• Young children are curious about the human mind, and this
has been studied under the topic of theory of mind.
• Metamemory improves in middle and late childhood, and
again in adolescence.
• Self-regulatory learning, which gives children
responsibility for their learning, consists of the selfgeneration and self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and
behaviors to reach a goal.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..
Summary
• High-achieving students are often self-regulatory
learners.
• One model of self-regulatory learning involves
self-evaluation and self-monitoring, goal setting
and strategic planning, putting a plan into action,
and monitoring outcomes and refining strategies.
• Self-monitoring increases during adolescence.
McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved..