... interference (inhibition) is a
decrease in accurate recall of
information as a result of the effects of
Retroactive interference (inhibition) is a
decrease in accurate recall as a result
of the subsequent presentation of
Flashbulb memory etc hand out File
... Lindsay (1991) suggested that suspects in an identity parade should be viewed one
at a time rather in a line-up in order to avoid functional size (fair number of feasible
suspects to chose from) and reduce possibility of mistaken identity.
Bull & Rumsey proposed that we judge people to be criminal o ...
... • Involves first encoding and then retrieving knowledge
• We don’t remember everything - involves filtering and
processing what is attended to
• Well known fact that we recognize things much better than
being able to recall things
– Better at remembering images than words
– Why interfaces are largel ...
Memory for Everyday Activities
... Episodic Buffer: component of working memory that is responsible for integrating
information processed by the articulatory loop and the visuospatial sketchpad, as well as
relevant information from long-term memory
... Narrative subjects were to make a story incorporating the
words in the list.
Control subjects were told just to study each of the list
and were given the same amount of time.
Immediate recall: both groups did very well, 99% correct.
Delayed recall: Narrative 85%, Control 15%
... • according to Sigmund Freud, repression is a
mental process that automatically hides
emotionally threatening or anxiety-producing
information in the unconscious (from which
repressed memories can’t be recalled voluntarily,
but something may cause them to enter
consciousness at a later time)
... Control room operators at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant lost SA when
they believed the water level in the plant to be too high rather than too low.
Three stages of situation awareness:
Understanding (short term and long term memory)
Projection and prediction ( ...
Neuroscience 19b – Memory
... the future. It can hold an unlimited amount of information and allow information
about the past to be used in the present. Retrieval from long term memory may be:
Implicit/Non-declarative (unconscious) - knowing how. Also known as
procedural. Familiarity and knowledge of how to interact with an ob ...
... • Memories, even saved ones, can decay over
Final Jeopardy 2
... with the iris to control the
amount of light that enters
The stress model of Yerkes-Dodson law suggests that at low and
... degree to which an event is perceived stressful, the less likely it is for a person to recollect
memory accurately, thus the presence of the misinformation effect.
Strengths of this experiment included a careful selection of similar video clips, and a
thorough literature review that which enabled th ...
... Memory is the capacity to retain information
Memory allows us to learn from previous
Memory systems can be characterized by
duration, capacity, and coding.
... events of our own life.
• Declarative memory: stored knowledge that
can be called forth consciously as needed.
• Procedural memory: permanent storage of
learned skills that does not require conscious
recollection. (swimming, driving, tying a tie)
... Event must be encoded in memory
Cues important in aiding recall
Cues may come from wording of
question, lists, context
Recall takes time. The more time the
better the recall
Chap 5: The Cognitive Approach II
... In the whole report condition, participants attempted to recall
the entire array but could only remember several letters.
In the partial-report condition, they were cued after the
display to report the letters in one row only. They could
remember all the letters.
This shows iconic memory has a high ...
Economic Attention Networks: Associative Memory and Resource
... • conserved quantities (except for unusual
circumstances – e.g. Economic Stimulus
• STI: the immediate urgency of an Atom
• LTI: measure of importance for quick recall of
• Forgetting process: uses low-LTI and other
factors to remove Atoms from quick memory
... but no barn.
17% in the experimental group (the
group asked the leading questions)
reported seeing a barn.
Only 3% in the control group (not asked
leading questions) made this error.
... Capacity - Very limited and in some models considered a "bottleneck" in human
information processing. The classic work of Miller (1956) determined the number of units
that can be processed at any one time as 7 + 2. Subsequent studies have indicated that
5 + 2 may apply to most of the items we wish t ...
Chap 6 RR
... proposes that the information at the end of the list is remembered due to the fact that it is still in shortterm memory. Recognition is usually a much easier task than recall since the retrieval cue is the actual
piece of information you are trying to remember, yet retrieval errors are still made wh ...
lecture 16 - Illinois State University Department of Psychology
... • Participants viewed words and were asked to make three
different types of judgments:
• Visual processing (e.g. “Is LOG in upper case?” Y/N)
• Phonological (e.g. “Does DOG rhyme with LOG?” Y/N)
• Semantic (e.g. “Does DOG fit in the sentence: ‘The ___ chased
the cat’?” Y/N)
You - Ashton Southard
... mention of relevant facts about those individuals (they were
wearing a funny hat or they had long red hair)
When older adults are directed to use the memory strategy of
elaboration during both study and retrieval, the difference
between young and old adults nearly disappears
› Clearly, elders’ ass ...
An eyewitness memory is a person's episodic memory for a crime or other dramatic event that he or she has witnessed. Eyewitness testimony is often relied upon in the judicial system. It can also refer to an individual's memory for a face, where they are required to remember the face of their perpetrator, for example. However, the accuracy of eyewitness memories is sometimes questioned because there are many factors that can act during encoding and retrieval of the witnessed event which may adversely affect the creation and maintenance of the memory for the event. Experts have found evidence to suggest that eyewitness memory is fallible.It has long been speculated that mistaken eyewitness identification plays a major role in the wrongful conviction of innocent individuals. A growing body of research now supports this speculation, indicating that mistaken eyewitness identification is responsible for more convictions of the innocent than all other factors combined. The Innocence Project determined that 75% of the 239 DNA exoneration cases had occurred due to inaccurate eyewitness testimony. It is important to inform the public about the flawed nature of eyewitness memory and the difficulties relating to its use in the criminal justice system so that eyewitness accounts are not viewed as the absolute truth.