How Do We Know That We Know? The Accessibility Model
... Question 3 involves relating accuracy to process: An adequate process model of FOK must not only specify the determinants of FOK judgments but it must also indicate how the processes leading to FOK can account for both the success and failure of FOK in monitoring subsequent memory performance.
Updating Empiricist Mentalist Semantics
... Artificial Intelligence at Utrecht University after obtaining my bachelor’s degree in
computer science, and this really stimulated my interest in science and philosophy. By
the time I embarked on the project of writing a master’s thesis there were several
candidate subjects on my mind; ‘meaning’ was ...
and Reflective Learning Practices
... from my reading of a selection of writings on refieetive praetiees edited by Boud,
Keogh, and Walker (1985a). Experiential leaming theorists invariably aeknowledge
the importanee of holistic leaming processes and the importanee of not neglecting
feelings and emotions alongside rational proeesses (Bo ...
Looking Through the Lens of Individual Differences: Relationships
... The study of individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality traits has the potential to inform our
understanding of how the processing mechanisms underlying different behaviors are organized. In the current
set of studies, we applied an individual-differences approach to the study of ...
Cognitive Concepts of Craving - CE
... fundamental motive for AOD use
in the addict. Conversely, cognitive
approaches consider craving the product of higher order mental functions.
Thus, from the cognitive perspective,
craving is not a primitive motivational
state but a complex, multidimensional
process that reflects how AOD-relevant
... – Strategies—the use of mental activities to improve the
processing of information—improve in these areas:
• Organization: More likely to be used by older
children and adults.
• Elaboration: Adolescents are more likely to use
elaboration spontaneously than children.
• Imagery: Encouraging children t ...
Can the meaning of multiple words be integrated unconsciously?
... Mounting evidence suggests that unconscious cognition is very powerful. Brainimaging studies have revealed subliminal information processing in many
different brain areas, from low-level perceptual regions up to ‘executive’ areas
in the prefrontal cortex [1,2]. To illustrate, recently, we have teste ...
The Higher-Order Approach to Consciousness
... I do not think so. The natural thing to do at this point is to identify the
episode of phenomenal conscious with the HOT itself while still identifying the
conscious mental state as the target of the HOT. The HOT is the state in virtue of
which there is something that it is like for one to have the ...
Biological Level of Analysis
... Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive
process (for example, memory, perception,
language, decision-making) with reference to
Explain how biological factors may affect one
cognitive process (for example, Alzheimer’s
disease, brain damage, sleep deprivation).
... • 1% of women at age forty who participate in routine screening have
breast cancer. 80% of women with breast cancer will get positive
results. 9.6% of women without breast cancer will also get positive
results. A woman in this age group had a positive mammography in
a routine screening. What is the ...
Spontaneous default mode network phase
... subjective appraisals of performance under stereotype threat. If stereotype threat promotes greater vigilance to performance errors and a
more negative interpretation of performance as reviewed above, then
even in circumstances where performance is not actually impaired,
one’s subjective appraisal a ...
Neural activity predicts attitude change in cognitive dissonance
... specifically reduce the negative affect5–7. When participants in control
groups are able to attribute their counter-attitudinal behavior to payment2
or coercion3,9–11, or when the counter-attitudinal behavior has no realworld consequences10,12, conflict between behavior and prior attitudes
is reduc ...
PDF - Oxford Academic - Oxford University Press
... Northridge, CA). The maximum intensity of the stimuli was 84 dB SPL
(sound pressure level) at the headphones and the scanning sounds were
confined within the inter-stimulus interval by using a clustered volume
acquisition sequence. A similar sound delivery system was used in our
previous imaging stu ...
Dialogue Games for Inconsistent and Biased Information
... Our objective is to show that in dialogue games inconsistent and biased
information can be dealt with consistently. To do this, we introduce truthvalues from bilattice structures [8,6] in all aspects of the dialogue game. As
a result, the cognitive state of the agent can be formulated as a set of mu ...
... response’ (CR). The associative learning here is learning to form new stimulus-response pairs between the bell
and the salivation.8
Classical conditioning is a fairly circumscribed process. It is a ‘stimulus substitution’ paradigm where one
stimulus can be swapped for another to provoke a response. ...
1 How Bayesian statistics are needed to determine whether mental
... Devils have one of the strongest bites amongst land mammals, so if you lower your hand down to
pet the little fellow, the bite could go through your finger bones like butter. In fact, if you put your
hand in the box and a devil is in it, there is a good chance that your hand will be left with only f ...
Dimensions of integration in embedded and extended cognitive
... and powerful in problem-solving than an embodied agent without such artifacts. 2
“Brains like ours need media, objects, and other people to function fully as minds”
(Sutton 2010, p. 205). On a complementarity view, artifacts or other resources do not
just augment existing brain functions by external ...
Topographic cues of nanoscale height direct neuronal growth pattern
... Figure 4C a sibling branch of the same neuron as from
Figure 4B crosses the ridge with no effect on its growth
direction. We consider a neuronal process as in Figure 4B an
‘‘affected process’’ and a process such as in Figure 4C a
‘‘non-affected process’’ (see also schematic drawing in
Fig. 5A). It i ...
A Public Scientific Method: Introspection - Philsci
... According to Goldman, then, introspecting subjects are observers gathering data, which they
convey through introspective reports. Psychologists exploit introspection, in Goldman’s opinion,
by taking the data collected by each introspecting subject and using them to test their hypotheses.
But then, p ...
... 1. Katz discusses how attitude adjustment is either a means for reaching the desired goal or
avoiding the undesirable one. This implies that attitude change is a cognitive process. Chen and
Bargh, show how automatic attitude activation appears to have behavioural consequences, in
that participants e ...
High-Level Perception, Representation, and
... representation? Even if we have determined precisely which data are relevant, and
we have determined the desired framework for the representation—a frame-based
representation, for instance—we still face the problem of organizing the data into the
representational form in a useful way. The data do n ...
Human Economic Choice as Costly Information Processing
... ambiguous option the probabilities of the outcomes are not known by the subject. For
example, the deterministic outcomes of a risky gamble can be $ 10 and $ 50, with no
statement of the chances of those outcomes. This leaves open the possibility of a lottery
ranging from a 0% chance at $ 10 to a 10 ...
Neural predictors of evaluative attitudes toward
... Attitudes comprise our evaluations of an object, a place, an
idea, another person or oneself: which are good or bad, which
do we want to approach or avoid? Attitudes influence a wide
range of human behaviors ranging from everyday social interactions with other people, health behavior and political b ...
Dual process theory
In psychology, a dual process theory provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways, or as a result of two different processes. Often, the two processes consist of an implicit (automatic), unconscious process and an explicit (controlled), conscious process. Verbalized explicit processes or attitudes and actions may change with persuasion or education; though implicit process or attitudes usually take a long amount of time to change with the forming of new habits. Dual process theories can be found in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. It has also been linked with economics via prospect theory and behavioral economics.