Provide one example
... A young child’s inability to understand another
... Her face is too large – it is actual size,
Introduction to Cognitive Science
... It studies mind and behavior
It is interdisciplinary
Cognitive science theories and explanations
often invoke computations and
Cognitive Information Processing
... of new information. Memory is related to the ability to
recall information that has been previously learned
Storage - the process by which new information is placed
Retrieval - the process by which people “find’ the
information they have previously stored so they can use it
theories of development
... The Cognitive Perspective: Piaget,
• Focuses on children’s mental processes; How children perceive
and mentally represent the world, think, apply logic, learning
style, solve problems
J. Piaget (1896–1980):Cognitive-developmental theory
- development is based on children’s i ...
Syllabus P140C (68530) Cognitive Science
... • Information processing models resemble processing in
computers – made cognitive psychology popular
• Idea is that information is processed in a number of
Growth and development
... Generating actions and seeing results
Differentiate between an object and action
Means to ends, Object permanence,
Think of action Forming representations, symbols,
Differentiation of self from objects
Intellectual conceptual thought
2- conceptual representational stage 2 years –
* Pr ...
Introduction of Psychiatry - Liaquat University of Medical & Health
... responding to environmental stimuli. The
learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e.
tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped
through positive reinforcement or negative
• Several types of learning exist. The most
basic form is associative learning, i.e.,
making a new association between event ...
The use of Models - NAU jan.ucc.nau.edu web server
... assumption in most process models that the
separate stages of processing occur in a fixed
sequence, with no overlap of the stages.
• Independent and Nonoverlapping Stages: The
assumption in the strict information processing
approach that the stages of processing are
independent of one another in the ...
... events are unconscious (e.g. memory retrieval, or visual
processes that lead to perceptual illusions).
Notes: Intro 3 - Cognitive Science
... the cage, making two or three turns between reinforcements.
Another repeatedly thrust its head into one of the upper
corners of the cage. A third developed a 'tossing' response,
as if placing its head beneath an invisible bar and lifting it
repeatedly. Two birds developed a pendulum motion of the
... of your world. Experience shapes
•Maps are not accurate copies of
the environment; they include
... A state of mental balance, no confusion
Interpret new ideas through past ideas
Needed for intellectual advancement
Easy equilibrium not always possible
If new experience is not understandable,
cognitive disequilibrium can occur
Two types of cognitive adaptation:
Assimilation - new experiences are in ...
Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development has been criticized on many grounds. One criticism is concerned with the very nature of development itself. It is suggested that Piaget's theory does not explain why development from stage to stage occurs. The theory is also criticized for ignoring individual differences in cognitive development. That is, the theory does not account for the fact that some individuals move from stage to stage faster than other individuals. Finally, another criticism is concerned with the nature of stages themselves. Research shows that the functioning of a person at a given age may be so variable from domain to domain, such as the understanding of social, mathematical, and spatial concepts, that it is not possible to place the person in a single stage. To remove these weaknesses, a group of researchers, who are known as neo-Piagetian theorists, advanced models that integrate concepts from Piaget's theory with concepts from cognitive and differential psychology.