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Transcript
Hello, Argentine!
 My name is
 I am a medical student from the University of Kansas
School of Medicine
 We will join you throughout the school year and will
hopefully teach you something along the way
University of Kansas School of Medicine
University of Kansas School of Medicine
University of Kansas School of Medicine
Nervous System
BY:
Nervous System related Health Careers
 Neurologist:

A medical doctor who,


 Neurosurgeon :

Diagnoses and treats the
nervous system, spinal
cord and muscle disorders
Required Schooling: 12
years
A medical doctor who,


Performs surgical
procedures on the brain,
spinal cord, and peripheral
nerves
Required Schooling: 14-15
years
Nervous System related Health Careers
 Psychiatrist:

A medical doctor who,


Diagnoses and treats
mental disorders
 Electroneurodiagnostic
Technician:

Required Schooling: 12
years

Records electrical activity
from the brain and spinal
cord which assists in the
diagnosis and monitoring
of patients with
neurological disorders
Required Schooling: 1-2
years
The Nervous System
 An organ system
 Made up of a group of
cells called neurons
 Function
 Sends signals between
different parts of the body
through neurons
 Coordinates and controls
all the actions and senses
in the body
When does the nervous system function?
 All the time! It controls,
 The
rate of your
heartbeat
 Your breathing
 Your thinking
 Your muscle contractions
so that you can raise your
hand when you have a
question
 And the list goes on…
What is a Neuron?
 It is the main cell that makes up the Nervous System
 Function
Receives information
 from other neurons or tissues in the body
 Interprets the information it has
received
 Transmits the information
 to either another neuron or a
another tissue in the body

Neurons
 Structure
 Dendrites

Receive the signal from another neuron or tissue
Dendrites
Dendrites RECEIVE the signal
Neurons
 Structures
 Cell body

Contains the nucleus and decodes the information received by the
dendrites and then sends new information to the axon
The cell body INTERPRETS the signal
Cell body
Neuron
 Structures
 Axon

Carries signals away from the cell body that will eventually signal
another neuron or tissue
The axon DELIVERS a new signal
Axon
Neurons
 Types of Neurons
 Efferent/Motor Neurons


Receive signals from the brain and spinal cord that leads to muscle
contractions
Afferent/Sensory Neurons
Interact with sensory organs(the eye, ear, nose, etc…)
 These neurons send signals to allow the brain to interpret the 5
senses


Interneurons

Connect one Neuron to another Neuron
Reflex Arc
 Definition: neural pathway that involves at least an
afferent and an efferent neuron, often bypassing the
brain (thus, we don’t consciously think about it!)
 Reflex arc involved when you touch something hot

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLrhYzdbbpE
 Patellar Reflex
Divisions of the Nervous System
Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
It’s Complicated
Brain
Spinal Cord
Autonomic NS
(Involuntary)
Parasympathetic
Somatic NS
(Voluntary)
Sympathetic
Central Nervous System
 Consists of the brain and spinal cord
 Gathers information from our surrounding environment and
interprets it
 Controls much of the activity in the body
 Contains all of the higher mental functions like thinking and
learning
Peripheral Nervous System
 Consists of nerves that are outside of the brain and
spinal cord


Connects the central nervous system to the limbs and organs of
the body
Divided into the AUTONOMIC and SOMATIC nervous systems
Peripheral Nervous System
 Autonomic Nervous System
 Unconsciously controls organs
 Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous
systems
Autonomic Nervous System
 Sympathetic:
 Fight or Flight Response
when you are under
STRESS
Dilates the eye to see
more clearly
 Increase the rate of the
heart beat
 Dilates the lungs so they
can take in more air
 Slows digestion

Autonomic Nervous System
 Parasympathetic:
 Rest and Digest
Response when you are
NOT under stress
Controls saliva release
from glands in mouth
 Increases intestinal
movement
 Controls urination and
defecation

Autonomic Nervous System
 Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
 These two nervous systems are antagonistic to each other
 Work together to UNCONCIOUSLY allow the body to respond
to a variety of environments and stimuli
Somatic Nervous System
 Controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscle
 Allows us to,
 Walk
 Run
 Jump
 Smile
 Chew food
 And the list goes on…
Diseases of the Nervous System
 Stroke
 Rapid loss of brain
function due to a
decrease in blood
supply to the brain
Stroke
 Symptoms
 Numbness, tingling or weakness often on only one side of the
body
 Vision Changes
 Difficulty speaking
 Confusion
 Severe Headache
 Passing Out
 These are variable depending on the severity of the
stroke and what area of the brain is most affected
Stroke
 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S.
 What can we do to make sure we don’t ever get one?
DO NOT SMOKE
 Avoid alcohol
 Maintain a healthy weight
 Exercise at least 30 minutes a day 4 times a week
 Eat a balanced, healthy diet

Nerve Injury
 Nerves are essentially like electrical wires, carrying
information throughout your body


The axon is like the conducting part of the wire
Myelin covers the axon – just like an electrical wire is covered
by a plastic or rubber coating
Nerve Injury
 If a nerve is cut, then the signal can’t get to its
destination
 What happens if you cut the cord that connects your
TV to the wall?
Quiz Time
 What is the cell of the nervous system?
?
N
E
_ _U
_R
_ ON
__
Questions?
References







Neurons (http://www.flickr.com/photos/thejcb/4118392620/) / The Journal of Cell Biology
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/thejcb/) / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/)
090806-F-6188A-130 (http://www.flickr.com/photos/usairforce/3821392258/) / US Air Force
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/usairforce/) / CC BY-NC 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)
Neuron (http://www.flickr.com/photos/ethanhein/3448961386/) / Ethan Hein
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/ethanhein/) / CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)
nerve (http://www.flickr.com/photos/estherase/20517254/) / Esther Simpson
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/estherase/) / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/)
page 214 Nervous System (http://www.flickr.com/photos/perpetualplum/3974877876/) / Sue Clark
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/perpetualplum/) / CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)
From the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4694311841/) /
Mary Margret (http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/) / CC BY 2.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)
Brain Model (http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4160835158/) / Shannan Muskopf
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/) / CC BY-NC 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)