Download File - CYPA Psychology

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Blood–brain barrier wikipedia, lookup

Axon guidance wikipedia, lookup

Premovement neuronal activity wikipedia, lookup

Artificial general intelligence wikipedia, lookup

Synaptogenesis wikipedia, lookup

Time perception wikipedia, lookup

Biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease wikipedia, lookup

Broca's area wikipedia, lookup

Development of the nervous system wikipedia, lookup

Donald O. Hebb wikipedia, lookup

Haemodynamic response wikipedia, lookup

Brain morphometry wikipedia, lookup

Activity-dependent plasticity wikipedia, lookup

Selfish brain theory wikipedia, lookup

Dual consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Optogenetics wikipedia, lookup

Connectome wikipedia, lookup

Feature detection (nervous system) wikipedia, lookup

Neurophilosophy wikipedia, lookup

Axon wikipedia, lookup

Neuroinformatics wikipedia, lookup

Single-unit recording wikipedia, lookup

Stimulus (physiology) wikipedia, lookup

Neurolinguistics wikipedia, lookup

Brain wikipedia, lookup

Neural correlates of consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Neuroplasticity wikipedia, lookup

Lateralization of brain function wikipedia, lookup

Human brain wikipedia, lookup

History of neuroimaging wikipedia, lookup

Channelrhodopsin wikipedia, lookup

Neuroanatomy of memory wikipedia, lookup

Aging brain wikipedia, lookup

Molecular neuroscience wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Neuropsychology wikipedia, lookup

Brain Rules wikipedia, lookup

Synaptic gating wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive neuroscience wikipedia, lookup

Holonomic brain theory wikipedia, lookup

Metastability in the brain wikipedia, lookup

Nervous system network models wikipedia, lookup

Neurotoxin wikipedia, lookup

Neurotransmitter wikipedia, lookup

Clinical neurochemistry wikipedia, lookup

Neuroanatomy wikipedia, lookup

Neuropsychopharmacology wikipedia, lookup

Neuroscience and
Your brain…and other stuff!
Last time we thought about…
• The shift from INTROSPECTIVE psychology to SCIENTIFIC
• Wait…what are the differences again?
• Ways to effectively design an experiment
• Wait…how did those work again?
• Common mistakes made in the analysis of data
• Wait…what were some of those again?
We also talked about…
• The Placebo Effect!
• Question!
• What is the Placebo Effect? What causes it?
Neuroscience: Foundations
• Paul Broca (1861): describes patient who cannot produce
spoken language
• The problem? Damage in a small area in her left FRONTAL lobe
• Broca’s Aphasia
Carl Wernicke (1848-1905): describes patient who cannot
comprehend language but CAN produce it
Damage to an area in the left TEMPORAL lobe
Wernicke’s Aphasia
• What do both Broca’s Aphasia and Wernicke’s Aphasia have in
• What can we learn about the brain (and maybe the mind)
from both afflictions?
Brains! Brains!
• Your brain is made up of over 100 BILLION neurons!
• Neurons: cells in the nervous system that communicate with
one another to perform information-processing tasks.
• Question: Are you reducible to your nervous system? Are
you just a brain? Are all of your actions, thoughts, and
feelings reducible to a bunch of neurons inside your
Neurons: They’re Funny
• Neurons are made up of three parts
• Cell body
• The largest part of the neuron
• Houses the cell nucleus
• Nucleus houses DNA
• Keeps cell alive
• Dendrites
• RECEIVE information from other neurons, muscles, or glands and
send information to the cell body
• Axons
• SEND information from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or
• Axons are long and creepy
Neurons: Close Up!
Oh Syn-APSE!
• Synapse: the gap between the axon of one neuron and the
dendrites or cell body of another
• Terminal Buttons: knoblike structures that branch out from an
• Neurotransmitter: chemicals that transmit information across
the synapse to a receiving neuron’s dendrites
• Receptors: parts of the dendrite that receive
neurotransmitters and initiate a new electric signal
Neurotransmitters & Disease
• Acetylcholine (Ach)
• Dopamine
• Glutamate
Alzheimers (ACH-producing neurons
Schizophrenia (high), Parkinson’s
Migraines, seizures (high)
Seizures, tremors, insomnia (low)
• Norepinephrine
Depression (low)
• Serotonin
Depression (low)
• Endorphins
“Runner’s high” (high)
Awkward Lecture Ahoy!
But Remember…
• Neurotransmitter levels aren’t the only thing that matters:
It’s all about the LOCATION of the
receptor sites!
This Is Your Brain on Drugs…
• Drugs act like neurotransmitters, tricking your brain into acting in
abnormal ways
• Agonists: drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter
• Antagonists: drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
• L-dopa: agonist for dopamine, helps fight Parkinson’s symptoms
• Amphetamines: stimulates release of norepinephrine and dopamine
• Prozac: blocks the reuptake of serotonin
Nervous System: Peripheral vs.
Split Brain Syndrome
• The brain is split into two hemispheres
• The two hemispheres are connected by commissures (bundles
of axons that allow the hemispheres to communicate with
each other)
• Corpus callosum: the largest commissure; connects large areas
of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports
communication of information across hemispheres
Parts of the Brain
Gratuitous Video from Someone
Hindbrain & Midbrain
Forebrain: Subcortical
Forebrain: the Most Evolved
Part of YOU
• Occiptal Lobe: processes visual information
• Parietal Lobe: processes information about touch, contains the
somatosensory cortex
• Temporal Lobe: located at the lower side of each hemisphere,
responsible for hearing and language
• Frontal Lobe: specialized areas for movement abstract
thinking, planning, memory, and judgment
Cerebral Cortex, One More
Cerebellum vs. Frontal Lobes
• Why do zombies shuffle?
Your Brain is Plastic
• Plasticity: functions that are assigned to certain areas of the
brain may be capable of being reassigned to toher areas of the
brain to accomodtate changing input from the environemnt
• Sensory inputs “compete” for representation in each area
• The Woman Without a Cerebellum
But Not THAT Plastic…
•Phineas Gage!
What Happens When…
• You cut the corpus callosum?