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Transcript
LinAZ Simulaton Listening Exam 2 – Level B1
Prof. Peter Cullen
04 2017
Text
Wade Marshall’s studies revolutionized our understanding of how sensory information is
organized and represented in the brain. Marshall showed that even though the different
systems carry different types of information and end up in different regions of the cerebral
cortex, they share a common logic in their organization: all sensory information is
organized topographically in the brain in the form of precise maps of the body’s sensory
receptors, such as, the retina or the eye, the basilar membrane in the ear, or the skin on
the body surface.
These sensory maps are most easily understood by the representation of touch in the
somatosensory cortex. Touch begins with the receptors in the skin that translate the
energy of a stimulus – for example, the energy transmitted by a pinch – into electrical
signals in sensory neurons. The signals then travel along precise pathways to the brain,
passing through several processing or relay stages in the brain stem and thalamus before
terminating in the somatosensory cortex. At each stage the signals travelling from
adjacent points on the skin are carried by nerve fibers that run alongside each other. In
this way, stimulation of two adjacent fingers, for instance, activates adjacent populations of
nerve cells in the brain.
Knowledge of the brain’s sensory maps and an understanding of how they are organized
topographically is exceedingly helpful in treating patients. Because these maps are
incredibly precise, clinical neurology has long been an accurate diagnostic discipline, even
though it has relied only on the simplest, most primitive of tools until the invention of
sophisticated imaging machinery. These primitive tools included a wad of cotton to test for
touch, a safety pin to test for pain, a tuning fork to test for vibration, and a hammer to test
for reflex action. Disturbances in the sensory and motor systems can be located with
remarkable accuracy because of the one-to-one relationship between sites on the body
and the areas of the brain.
1
LinAZ Simulaton Listening Exam 2 – Level B1
Prof. Peter Cullen
04 2017
___________________________________________
__________30/30
Name, Date, and Registration Number
Questions: You do not have to use complete sentences! This is a listening exam.
SIMPLE AND CORRECT IS BETTER THAN COMPLICATED AND WRONG.
1. What did Wade Marshall’s studies revolutionize?
2. How is all sensory information is organized in the brain?
3. What do the receptors in the skin that translate the energy of a stimulus into?
4. What does stimulation of two adjacent fingers on your hand activate in the brain?
5. Name three primitive tools used in clinical neurology before the invention of
sophisticated imaging equipment.
______/20
True or False: Write “True” or “False” in the space next to each statement
1. Marshall showed that different neural systems carry different types of information
and end up in different regions of the cerebral cortex, and do not share a common
logic in their organization.
________________
2. The basilar membrane is in the ear.
________________
3. These sensory maps are least easily understood by the representation of touch in
the somatosensory cortex.
________________
4. The signals travelling from adjacent points on the skin are carried by nerve fibers
that run alongside each other.
________________
5. Disturbances in the sensory and motor systems can be located with remarkable
accuracy because of the one-to-one relationship between sites on the body and the
areas of the brain.
________________
2
LinAZ Simulaton Listening Exam 2 – Level B1
Prof. Peter Cullen
04 2017
______/10
LinAZ Listening Exam 3 – Level B1
Prof. Peter Cullen
Jan 2017
Answer Sheet
True or False: Write “True” or “False” in the space next to each statement
1
2
3
4
5
F
T
F
T
T
3