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Unit VII: Cognition
AP Psychology
Module 31: Studying and Building
1. Caitlin, a fifth grader, is asked to remember her second grade teacher’s
name. What measure of retention will Caitlin use to answer this question?
a. Storage
b. Recognition
c. Relearning
d. Recall
e. Encoding
Module 31: Studying and Building
2. Working memory is the most active during which portion of the
information-processing model?
a. Short-term memory
b. Sensory memory
c. Retrieval
d. Encoding
e. Long-term memory
Module 31: Studying and Building
3. Your memory of which of the following is an example of implicit memory?
a. What you had for breakfast yesterday
b. The need to spend some time reviewing tomorrow for an upcoming
psychology quiz
c. Which way to turn the car key to start the engine
d. That George Washington was the first President
e. How exciting it was to get the best birthday present ever
Module 31: Studying and Building
4. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the capacity of
short-term and working memory?
a. Lasts for about 2 days in most circumstances
b. Lasts for less than half a minute unless you rehearse that information
c. Is thought to be unlimited- there is always room for more information
d. Can handle about a half dozen items for each of the tasks you are working
on at any time
e. Can handle about a half dozen items total
Module 31: Studying and Building
5. Which of the following is most likely to lead to sematic encoding of a list of
a. Thinking about how the words relate to your own life
b. Practicing the words for a single extended period
c. Breaking up the practice into several relatively short sessions
d. Noticing where in a sentence the words appear
e. Focusing on the number of vowels and consonants in the words
Module 32: Memory Storage and
1. What two parts of the brain are most involved in explicit memory?
a. Frontal lobes and basal ganglia
b. Amygdala and hippocampus
c. Amygdala and cerebellum
d. Cerebellum and basal ganglia
e. Frontal lobes and hippocampus
Module 32: Memory Storage and
2. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the relationship
between emotions and memory?
a. Emotion blocks memory, and it is general true that we are unable to recall
highly emotional events.
b. Excitement tends to increase the chance than an event will be
remembered, but stress decreases the chance than an event will be
c. Stress tends to increase the chance than an event will be remembered, but
excitement decreases the chance than an event will be remembered.
d. The effect of emotion on memory depends on the interpretation of the
event in the frontal lobes.
e. Emotion enhances memory because it is important for our survival to
remember events that make us emotional.
Module 32: Memory Storage and
3. Which of the following is an example of the flashbulb memory?
a. Barry remembers an especially bright sunrise because he was by the ocean
and the sunlight reflected off of the water.
b. Robert remembers that correlation does not prove an cause-effect
relationship because his teacher emphasized this fact over and over again.
c. Anna remembers when her father returned from an overseas military
deployment because the day was very emotional for her.
d. Kris has stronger memories of her second grade teacher than she does of
her third grade teacher because her second grader teacher has the same
name as her neighbor.
e. Anton remembers a moment from his last homecoming dance because a
strobe light seemed to freeze the scene in his imagination.
Module 32: Memory Storage and
4. Juan returns to his grandparent’s house after a 10-year absence. The flood of
memories about his childhood visits is best explained by which of the
a. Recall
b. Priming
c. Explicit memory
d. The serial position effect
e. Flashbulb memory
Module 32: Memory Storage and
5. Which of the following is an example of the primacy effect?
a. Remembering the most important assignment you have to complete for
school tomorrow
b. Remembering the skills you learned early in life, such as walking
c. Remembering the last thing your English teacher talked about in class
yesterday, but nothing from earlier in the class period
d. Remembering the names of the first two co-workers you met on the first day
of your new job
e. Remembering that your clocks must be moved ahead one hour when
daylight savings time begins in the spring
Module 33: Forgetting, Memory
Construction, and Memory Improvement
1. Which of the following is an example of anterograde amnesia?
a. Halle has no memories of the first 10 years of her life.
b. William has lost his memory of the 2 weeks before he had surgery to remove
a benign brain tumor.
c. Louis can remember his past, but has not been able to form new long-term
memories since experiencing a brain infection 4 years ago.
d. Maddie can’t remember the details of when she was mugged downtown 6
months ago.
e. Kalund struggles in school because he consistently misremembers what his
teachers said in class.
Module 33: Forgetting, Memory
Construction, and Memory Improvement
2. Muhammad has been in his school cafeteria hundreds of times. It is a large
room, and there are nine free-standing pillars that support the roof. One day, to
illustrate the nature of forgetting, Muhammad’s teacher asks him how many
pillars there are in the cafeteria. Muhammad has difficulty answering the
question, but finally replies that he thinks that there are six pillars. What
memory concept dies this example illustrate?
a. Storage decay
b. Retrograde amnesia
c. Proactive interference
d. Retroactive interference
e. Encoding failure
Module 33: Forgetting, Memory
Construction, and Memory Improvement
3. What does Herman Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve show about the nature of
storage decay?
a. The rate of forgetting increases as time goes on.
b. The rate of forgetting decreases as time goes on.
c. The rate of forgetting does not change as time goes on.
d. The rate of forgetting varies according to the motivation of the learner.
e. The rate of forgetting varies according to the emotional state of the
Module 33: Forgetting, Memory
Construction, and Memory Improvement
4. Which of the following in an example of proactive interference?
a. You can’t recall your locker combination from sixth grade because your
current locker combination interferes.
b. You can’t recall your new cell phone number because your old number
c. You can’t recall what you studied in first period because what you studied
in fourth period interferes.
d. You can’t recall what you studied on Monday because what you studied
on Tuesday interferes.
e. You can’t recall who won the state swim meet last year because the
winner of this year’s meet interferes.
Module 33: Forgetting, Memory
Construction, and Memory Improvement
5. The text discusses therapist-guided “recovered” memories. Which of the
following statements represent an appropriate conclusion about this issue?
a. Therapists who use hypnosis are likely to help their patients retrieve repressed
b. Statistics indicate that childhood sexual abuse rarely occurs; therefore,
recovered memories of such abuse must be false.
c. Memories are only rarely recovered; once you are unable to retrieve a memory
you will probably never be able to retrieve it.
d. One indicator of whether a recovered memory is true is the patient’s emotional
response; only true recovered memories are emotionally upsetting.
e. Since the brain is not sufficiently mature to store accurate memories of events
before the age of 3, memories from the first 3 years of life are not reliable.
Module 34: Thinking, Concepts, and
1. Which of the following is the best term for mental activities associated with
remembering, thinking, and knowing?
a. Cognition
b. Concepts
c. Prototypes
d. Convergent thinking
e. Divergent thinking
Module 34: Thinking, Concepts, and
2. Which of the following is the best phrase for the narrowing of available
problem solutions with the goal of determining the best solution?
a. Allowing for incubation
b. Divergent thinking
c. Developing expertise
d. Convergent thinking
e. Experiencing other cultures
Module 34: Thinking, Concepts, and
3. Producing valuable and novel ideas best defines which of the following?
a. Prototyping
b. Cognition
c. Intrinsic motivation
d. Venturesome personality
e. Creativity
Module 35: Solving Problems and
Making Decisions
1. What is another term for a methodical, logical rule that guarantees solving a
particular problem?
a. Heuristic
b. Algorithm
c. Insight
d. Mental set
e. Confirmation bias
Module 35: Solving Problems and
Making Decisions
2. Which of the following is the tendency to search for supportive information of
preconceptions while ignoring contradictory evidence?
a. Confirmation bias
b. Intuition
c. Mental set
d. Availability heuristic
e. Overconfidence
Module 35: Solving Problems and
Making Decisions
3. What is another word for the way an issue is presented to you?
a. Intuition
b. Insight
c. Framing
d. Overconfidence
e. Perseverance
Module 35: Solving Problems and
Making Decisions
4. When instances come readily to mind, we often presume such events are
common. What of the following is the term for this phenomenon?
a. Intuition insight
b. Confirmation bias
c. Belief perseverance
d. Mental set
e. Availability heuristic
Module 36: Thinking and Language
1. What do we call the smallest distinctive sound units in language?
a. Structure
b. Morphemes
c. Grammar
d. Phonemes
e. Thoughts
Module 36: Thinking and Language
2. Which of the following best identifies the early speech stage in which a child
speaks using mostly nouns and verbs?
a. Two-word stage
b. Babbling stage
c. One-word stage
d. Telegraphic stage
e. Grammar
Module 36: Thinking and Language
3. The prefix “pre” in “preview” or the suffix “ed” in “adapted” are examples
a. Phonemes
b. Morphemes
c. Babbling
d. Grammar
e. Intuition
Module 36: Thinking and Language
4. Evidence of the words’ subtle influence on thinking best supports the notion
a. Wernicke’s area
b. Broca’s area
c. Linguistic determinism
d. Babbling
e. Aphasia
Unit VII: Review
1. What does the “magical number seven, plus or minus two” refers to?
a. The ideal number of times to rehearse information on the first encoding
b. The number of seconds information stays in short-term memory without
c. The capacity of short-term memory
d. The number of seconds information stays in echoic storage
e. The number of years most long-term memories last
Unit VII: Review
2. Which of the following describes long-term potentiation (LTP)?
a. When attempting to retrieve information, it is easier to recognize than to
b. Constructed memories have the potential to be either accurate of
c. Changes in synapses allow for more efficient transfer of information.
d. Implicit memories are processed by the cerebellum instead of by the
e. Information is transferred from working memory to long-term memory.
Unit VII: Review
3. Which of the following abilities is an example of implicit memory?
a. Riding a bicycle while talking to your friend about something that
happened in class
b. Retrieving from memory the details of an assignment that is due tomorrow
c. Vividly recalling significant events like the 9/11 attacks on New York City
and Washington, D.C.
d. Remembering the details of your last birthday party
e. Recognizing names and pictures of your classmates many years after they
have graduated
Unit VII: Review
4. Which of the following statements concerning memory is true?
a. Hypnosis, when used as a component of therapy usually improves the
accuracy of memory.
b. One aspect of memory that is usually accurate is the source of the
remembered information.
c. Children’s memories of abuse are more accurate than other childhood
d. Memories we are more certain of are more likely to be accurate.
e. Memories are often a blend of correct and incorrect information.
Unit VII: Review
5. The basketball players could remember the main points of their coach’s
halftime talk, but not her exact words. This is because they encoded the
a. Semantically.
b. Iconically.
c. Implicitly.
d. Shallowly.
e. Automatically.
Unit VII: Review
6. When someone provides his phone number to another person, he usually
pauses after the area code and again after the next three numbers. This
pattern underscores the importance of which memory principle?
a. Chunking
b. The serial position effect
c. Sematic encoding
d. Auditory encoding
e. Recognition
Unit VII: Review
7. Which of the following is true regarding the role of the amygdala in
a. The amygdala helps process implicit memories.
b. The amygdala support Freud’s ideas about memory because they allow us
to repress memories of trauma.
c. The amygdala produce long-term potentiation on the brain.
d. The amygdala help make sure we remember events that trigger strong
emotional responses.
e. The amygdala are active when the retrieval of a long-term memory is
Unit VII: Review
8. Which of the following illustrates the serial position effect?
a. The only name Kensie remembers from the people she met at the party is
Spencer because she though he was particularly good looking.
b. Kimia has trouble remembering information from the book’s first unit when
she reviews for semester finals.
c. It’s easy for Brittney to remember that carbon’s atomic number is 6
because her birthday is on December 6.
d. Kyle was not able to remember the names of all of his new co-workers after
one week on the job, but he could remember them after two weeks.
e. Alp is unable to remember the middle of a list of vocabulary words as well
as he remembers the first or last words on the list.
Unit VII: Review
9. Mnemonic devices are least likely to be dependent upon which of the
a. Imagery
b. Acronyms
c. Rhymes
d. Chunking
e. Massed rehearsal
Unit VII: Review
10. You are more likely to remember psychology information in your
psychology classroom than in other environments because of what memory
a. Mood congruence
b. Context effects
c. State-dependency
d. Proactive interference
e. Retroactive interference
Unit VII: Review
11. Which of the following kinds of information is not likely to be automatically
a. Space information
b. Time information
c. Frequency information
d. New information
e. Rehearsed information
Unit VII: Review
12. Which of the following is an example of source amnesia?
a. Iva can’t remember the details of a horrifying even because she has
repressed them.
b. Mary has entirely forgotten about an incident in grade school until her
friend reminds her of the event.
c. Michael can’t remember this year’s locker combination because he
confuses it with last year's combination.
d. Stephen misremembers a dream as something that really happened.
e. Anna, who is trying to lose weight, is unable to remember several of the
between-meal snacks she had yesterday.
Unit VII: Review
13. Which of the following is an accurate conclusion based on Hermann
Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve research?
a. Most forgetting occurs early on and then levels off
b. We forget more rapidly as time passes
c. Forgetting is relatively constant over time
d. Forgetting is related to many factors, but time is not one of the them
e. We are more likely to forget items in the middle of a list that the beginning
or the end
Unit VII: Review
14. “Chair,” “freedom,” and “ball” are all examples of what?
a. Phonemes
b. Heuristics
c. Concepts
d. Telegraphic utterances
e. Prototypes
Unit VII: Review
15. People are more concerned about a medical procedure when told is has a
10 percent death rate than they are when it has a 90 percent survival rate.
Which psychological concept explains this difference in concern?
a. Belief perseverance
b. Insight
c. Intuition
d. Framing
e. Confirmation bias
Unit VII: Review
16. Which of the following illustrates a heuristic?
a. Calculating the area of a rectangle by multiplying the length times the
b. Using news reports of corporate fraud to estimate how much business fraud
occurs in American business
c. Looking in each room of your home to find your sleeping cat
d. Following a new recipe to bake a cake for your friend
e. Trying every key on your mon’s key ring until you find the one that unlocks
the seldom-used storeroom in the basement
Unit VII: Review
17. Which of the following most likely represents a prototype for the concept
indicated in parentheses?
a. A whale (mammal)
b. An ostrich (bird)
c. A beanbag chair (chair)
d. An igloo (house)
e. A golden retriever (dogs)
Unit VII: Review
18. The inability to see a problem fro a fresh perspective is called what?
a. Confirmation bias
b. Insight
c. Representativeness
d. Fixation
e. Availability
Unit VII: Review
19. Which phrase best describes the concept of phonemes?
a. Units of meaning in a language
b. A form of syntax
c. The basis of grammar
d. Units of sound in a language
e. A form of telegraphic speech
Unit VII: Review
20. Which concept best explains why people often underestimate the amount
of time it will take to compete a project?
a. Belief perseverance
b. Framing
c. Intuition
d. The availability heuristic
e. Overconfidence
Unit VII: Review
21. Which of the following is not one of Robert Sternberg’s components of
a. A venturesome personality
b. Imaginative thinking skills
c. A creative environment
d. A position of ignorance
e. Intrinsic motivation
Unit VII: Review
22. Which of the following demonstrates the representativeness heuristic?
a. Deciding that a new kid in school is a nerd because he looks like a nerd
b. Fearing air travel because of memories of plane crashes
c. Checking in every drawer to find some matches because matches are
usually in drawers
d. Having the solution to a word problem pop into your head because you
have just successfully solved a similar problem
e. Applying for jobs in several local grocery stores because your best friend
just got a jog in a grocery store
Unit VII: Review
23. Benjamin Lee Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis relates to what
aspect of the power of language?
a. How thinking influences language
b. How language influences thinking
c. The role of the language acquisition device
d. The importance of critical periods in language development
e. The development of language in nonhuman animals
Unit VII: Review
24. According to Noam Chomsky, what is the most essential environmental
stimulus necessary for language acquisition?
a. Exposure to language in early childhood
b. Instruction in grammar
c. Reinforcement for babbling and other early verbal behaviors
d. Imitation and drill
e. Linguistic determinism