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WHY STUDY THE BRAIN IN PSYCHOLOGY? IT IS THE PART OF US THAT CONTROLS EVERY THOUGHT, ACTION, AND FEELING CEREBRAL CORTEX • Outermost layer of the Brain • Controls high level thought • If you were to untangle it, it would be the size of a large bath towel HEMISPHERES • Brain is divided into two hemispheres or parts. • The line that divides the is called a Fissure. • Right and Left: each side of brain controls the opposite side of the body. • Corpus Callosum: bundle of fibers that help each side of the brain communicate with the other. FOUR LOBES • The Cerebral Cortex is divided into four lobes. • Frontal Lobe • Parietal Lobe • Temporal Lobe • Occipital Lobe FRONTAL LOBE • Motor Strip: controls all bodily movements • Pre-Frontal Area: (right behind your forehead)enables us to re-experience past events in our personal lives. • Frontal Association Area: associates ideas, forms and plans activities—it’s the core of personality because it interprets what is going on and how and what to feel and do. FRONTAL ASSOCITATION AREAPhineas P.Gage 1840’s-railroad workerFreak accident Allowed us to first begin to understand the nature of the frontal association area. BROCA’S AREA • Located in the frontal lobe • Language processing and speech production. OCCIPITAL LOBE • Very back of the Brain • Interprets visual information like color, light, shape, and movement. PARIETAL LOBE • Behind the frontal lobe. • Contains the sensory strip. – Band that registers and provides all sensations. TEMPORAL LOBE Contains the major centers for hearing. Some of the centers relating to speech are also located here. WERNICKE’S AREA • Part of the cortex in the temporal lobe • In the left hemisphere • Helps in understanding of the spoken language HEMISPHERES AND HANDEDNESS • 10% of the population is left-handed. • When dealing with small, fine body movements, such as writing—one hemisphere has dominance. • One hemisphere is always preferred to use. • Most people are left-hemisphere dominant and right handed. TASKS OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES THE LOWER BRAIN • Lies deep inside the skull with the cerebral cortex fitting over and around it. • The lower brain is the part that regulates the basic functions such as breathing. • Parts of Lower Brain: – – – – – Thalamus Hypothalamus Limbic System Cerebellum Reticular Activating System (Reticular Formation) THALAMUS • An oval mass of nerve cells • Acts as a relay station to send incoming and outgoing messages to and from various parts of brain. – Ex. If you want to move your big toe, the brain sends a message to the thalamus, which then sends it to the correct place on the motor strip. HYPATHALUMUS • SITS BELOW THE THE THALAMUSHYPO means Below. • Size of a large pea—helps control rage, pleasure, hunger, thirst, sexual desire. LIMBIC SYSTEM • Contains structures that are involved in basic emotions and memory. • TWO PARTS: – Amygdala: primarily responsible for emotional responses, especially aggression. – Hippocampus: enables us to form memories. CEREBELLUM • Looks like a ball of yarn, a little larger than a golf ball and it hooks on the base of the brain below the occipital lobe. • Job is Complex: Coordinates and organizes bodily movements for balance and accuracy. RETICULAR FORMATION • Also called the Reticular Activating System • Sits right at the base of the brain inside the spinal cord. • It is a kind of “net” that catches nerve impulses. • It regulates the activity level of the body BRAIN CON’T • Pituitary Gland-the master gland of the body • Endocrine System (hormone system) • Secretes hormones • It is attached to and controlled by the hypothalamus • Helps control growth, blood pressure, breast milk production, sex organs PONS • Part of the Central Nervous System • Relays sensory information between the cerebellum and the cerebrum. Medulla • Controls the autonomic functions. • Relays nerve signals between brain and spinal cord • -respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, reflexes, vomiting NEUROTRANSMITTERS • Neurons: nerve cells-transmit electrical and chemical info (through the body-via neurotransmitters) • Dendrite-part of neuron that receive info. • Axon-part of the neuron that carries messages away. • Synapse-space in between two neurons Neurotransmitters • Chemicals in the endings of the neurons that send information across synapses. • Acetylcholine: regulates basic bodily processes like movement • Dopamine: control of bodily movement— shortage of it results in disease like Parkinson’s. • Endorphins: relieve pain