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Transcript
WHY STUDY THE BRAIN IN
PSYCHOLOGY?
IT IS THE PART OF US THAT
CONTROLS EVERY THOUGHT,
ACTION, AND FEELING
CEREBRAL CORTEX
• Outermost layer of
the Brain
• Controls high level
thought
• If you were to
untangle it, it would
be the size of a large
bath towel
HEMISPHERES
• Brain is divided into two
hemispheres or parts.
• The line that divides the
is called a Fissure.
• Right and Left: each side
of brain controls the
opposite side of the body.
• Corpus Callosum: bundle
of fibers that help each
side of the brain
communicate with the
other.
FOUR LOBES
• The Cerebral Cortex is divided into four
lobes.
• Frontal Lobe
• Parietal Lobe
• Temporal Lobe
• Occipital Lobe
FRONTAL LOBE
• Motor Strip: controls all bodily movements
• Pre-Frontal Area: (right behind your forehead)enables us to re-experience past events in our
personal lives.
• Frontal Association Area: associates ideas,
forms and plans activities—it’s the core of
personality because it interprets what is going
on and how and what to feel and do.
FRONTAL ASSOCITATION AREAPhineas P.Gage
1840’s-railroad workerFreak accident
Allowed us to first begin
to understand the
nature of the frontal
association area.
BROCA’S AREA
• Located in the frontal
lobe
• Language processing
and speech
production.
OCCIPITAL LOBE
• Very back of the Brain
• Interprets visual
information like color,
light, shape, and
movement.
PARIETAL LOBE
• Behind the frontal
lobe.
• Contains the sensory
strip.
– Band that registers
and provides all
sensations.
TEMPORAL
LOBE
Contains the major centers
for hearing.
Some of the centers
relating to speech are also
located here.
WERNICKE’S AREA
• Part of the cortex in
the temporal lobe
• In the left hemisphere
• Helps in
understanding of the
spoken language
HEMISPHERES AND
HANDEDNESS
• 10% of the population is left-handed.
• When dealing with small, fine body
movements, such as writing—one
hemisphere has dominance.
• One hemisphere is always preferred to
use.
• Most people are left-hemisphere dominant
and right handed.
TASKS OF CEREBRAL
HEMISPHERES
THE LOWER BRAIN
• Lies deep inside the skull with the cerebral
cortex fitting over and around it.
• The lower brain is the part that regulates the
basic functions such as breathing.
• Parts of Lower Brain:
–
–
–
–
–
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Limbic System
Cerebellum
Reticular Activating System (Reticular Formation)
THALAMUS
• An oval mass of nerve cells
• Acts as a relay station to send incoming
and outgoing messages to and from
various parts of brain.
– Ex. If you want to move your big toe, the
brain sends a message to the thalamus,
which then sends it to the correct place on the
motor strip.
HYPATHALUMUS
• SITS BELOW THE THE THALAMUSHYPO means Below.
• Size of a large pea—helps control rage,
pleasure, hunger, thirst, sexual desire.
LIMBIC SYSTEM
• Contains structures that are involved in
basic emotions and memory.
• TWO PARTS:
– Amygdala: primarily responsible for
emotional responses, especially aggression.
– Hippocampus: enables us to form memories.
CEREBELLUM
• Looks like a ball of yarn, a little larger than
a golf ball and it hooks on the base of the
brain below the occipital lobe.
• Job is Complex: Coordinates and
organizes bodily movements for balance
and accuracy.
RETICULAR FORMATION
• Also called the Reticular Activating System
• Sits right at the base of the brain inside the
spinal cord.
• It is a kind of “net” that catches nerve
impulses.
• It regulates the activity level of the body
BRAIN CON’T
• Pituitary Gland-the master gland of the
body
• Endocrine System (hormone system)
• Secretes hormones
• It is attached to and controlled by the
hypothalamus
• Helps control growth, blood pressure,
breast milk production, sex organs
PONS
• Part of the Central
Nervous System
• Relays sensory
information between
the cerebellum and
the cerebrum.
Medulla
• Controls the autonomic functions.
• Relays nerve signals between brain and
spinal cord
• -respiration, blood pressure, heart rate,
reflexes, vomiting
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
• Neurons: nerve cells-transmit electrical
and chemical info (through the body-via
neurotransmitters)
• Dendrite-part of neuron that receive info.
• Axon-part of the neuron that carries
messages away.
• Synapse-space in between two neurons
Neurotransmitters
• Chemicals in the endings of the neurons
that send information across synapses.
• Acetylcholine: regulates basic bodily
processes like movement
• Dopamine: control of bodily movement—
shortage of it results in disease like
Parkinson’s.
• Endorphins: relieve pain