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Transcript
Unit 3: Memory
Warm Up
Are you (or someone you know) able to
seemingly quote a whole movie or sing any song
from memory? How do you think that’s possible?
AP Psychology
Unit 3: Memory (Cognition)
Essential Task 3-1:
Describe the information processing model of memory with specific attention to the
following steps:
- Encoding: external stimuli, sensory registers, selective attention, reticular formation,
short-term memory
- Storage: long-term memory, explicit memory (semantic and episodic memories) and
implicit memories (emotional and procedural memories)
- Retrieval
Information
Processing Model
1. Encoding
2. Storage
gone
Long Term
Memory
All the rest
3. Retrieval
External
Stimuli
Sensory
Registers
Retrieval
We are
here
Short Term
Memory
Essential
Task
3-1:
Outline
• Define memory
• Describe the Information Processing Model or
IPM for short
– Encoding:
•
•
•
•
external stimuli
sensory registers
selective attention
short-term memory
– Storage:
• long-term memory,
– explicit memory (semantic and episodic memories)
– implicit memories (emotional and procedural memories)
– Retrieval
Memory
• The ability to remember things we
have experienced, imagined, or
learned
• Memory is often seen as steps in an
information-processing model
Outline
Information Processing Model
– Encoding – (The process of putting
information into digital format.)
– Storage – Hard Drive
– Retrieval – Accessing the Hard Drive
Outline
Information Processing
Model
1. Encoding
gone
Long Term
Memory
2. Storage
3. Retrieval
External
Stimuli
All the rest
Sensory
Registers
Retrieval
Short Term Memory
Seven Dwarves Activity
Outline
Recognition is easier than recall
• Grouchy, Gabby, Fearful, Sleepy,
Smiley, Jumpy, Hopeful, Shy, Droopy,
Dopey, Sniffy, Wishful, Puffy, Dumpy,
Sneezy, Lazy, Pop, Grumpy, Bashful,
Cheerful, Teach, Shorty, Nifty, Happy,
Doc, Wheezy, and Stubby.
Outline
Information Processing
Model
1. Encoding
gone
Long Term
Memory
2. Storage
3. Retrieval
External
Stimuli
All the rest
Sensory
Registers
Retrieval
Short Term
Memory
Outline
Sensory registers
• Sensory registers are the first stop for
all sensory information
• The sensory registers are very large,
but information stays for only a very
short time
Outline
Visual and Auditory Registers
• Visual register holds images, or icons, that
represent all aspects of a visual image
– Icons normally last about ¼ second in the
visual register
• Auditory register holds echoes of sound
– Echoes can last up to several seconds in
the auditory register
Outline
• Why do the auditory registers last
longer?
Now let us test your visual registers
• I will flash the next picture for just ¼ of
a second.
• DON’T BLINK
• After the image flashes we’ll return to
a white screen and you can tell me
everything you saw.
Outline
Outline
Did you pay attention to everything?
Outline
Here is another image
• DON’T BLINK
Outline
Outline
How big is your attention?
Outline
Selective Attention
• Selects certain information for further
processing
• We normally pay attention to only a
SMALL
(PLEASE ENJOY THE IRONIC FONT SELECTION)
of incoming information
Outline
portion
Short-term Memory (STM)
• Short-term memory holds information
we are aware of or thinking about at
any given moment
• Sometimes referred to as working
memory
Outline
Capacity of Short-Term Memory
• Research indicates that STM can hold
7+/- 2 bits of information
• Larger amounts of information can be
held by using the process of chunking
Outline
Encoding
• Information can be stored:
• Phonologically (according to how it
sounds)
• Visually
• visually encoded info > phonologically
encoded info
Outline
Let’s see how good your STM is!
Outline
Short Term Memory
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
9754
68259
913825
5963827
86951372
719384273
9152438162
15284673189
Chunking Helps
Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
97-54
6 8 -2 5 9
9 1 -3 8- 2 5
5 9 -6 3- 8 2 7
8 6 9- 5 1 3- 7 2
7 1 9 -3 8 4- 2 7 3
9 1 5 -2 4 3- 8 1- 6 2
1 5 2 8 -4 6 7 3- 1 8 9
Think of the concept maps – creates chunks
Maintaining STMLTM
• Information can be held in STM by
using rote rehearsal, also called
maintenance rehearsal
• Rote rehearsal: repeating information
over and over
– not very effective if no intent to learn
Outline
Long-term Memory
• Everything that is learned is stored in
long-term memory
• Capacity of long-term memory:
– Vast amounts of information may be
stored for many years
– No known limits to
its capacity
Outline
Encoding in Long-term Memory
• Most information is encoded in terms
of meaning
• Some information:
Outline
– is stored verbatim
– is coded in terms of nonverbal images
– Research has shown that memory for
visually encoded information is better
than phonologically encoded information
CONCEPT MAPS CREATE A VISUAL!!!!
Maintaining LTM
Elaborative rehearsal
• Process of relating new information to
information already stored in memory
Schema/Schemata
A schema is a set of beliefs or
expectations about something based
on past experience
• Incoming information is fit into existing
schemata
E.g, House
• House, cottage mansion, cabin, manor,
poorhouse, duplex, apartment
Types of Long Term Memory
• Explicit memory
– Episodic Memory
– Semantic Memory
• Implicit memory
– Procedural Memory
@#$!&
@#$!&
Outline
– Emotional Memory
Types of Long Term Memory
• Explicit memory
– Memory for information we can readily express
and are aware of having
– This information can be intentionally recalled
– Episodic Memories - Memories for personal events
in a specific time and place
– Semantic Memories - Memory for general facts
and concepts not linked to a specific time
Outline
Types of Long Term Memory
• Implicit memory
– Memory for information that we cannot readily
express and may not be aware of having
– Cannot be intentionally retrieved
– Procedural memories: Motor skills and
habits
– Emotional memories: Learned emotional
responses to various stimuli
Outline
Retrieval
– Bringing information from LTM back to
STM
Outline
Elaborative Rehearsal!
For the following, explain in your own
words and give a personal example
(3+ sentences) of each:
1. Explicit Memory
2. Implicit Memory
3. Episodic Memory
4. Semantic Memory
5. Procedural Memory
6. Emotional Memory
7. Selective Attention
8. Describe a time that you used rote
rehearsal.
-Why did you need to use rote
rehearsal?
-Was it effective? Why/why not?
-Would you be able to retrieve that
information from your LTM?
Why/why not?
9. Schemata
Describe your schema regarding equality: What are your set of
beliefs surrounding the idea of equality.
• Once you’ve described your schema, explain how the
following fit into your schema:
• Gender, Race, Religion, Sexuality, Handicap,
Socioeconomic status, Gender Identity (Intersex,
Transgender)