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Transcript
Introduction to Synthesis
What is Synthetic Writing?
What are the components of Synthetic Writing?
EXERCISE
Read the following paragraph and answer the following questions:
Is this effective synthetic writing?
If not, what is missing? How could it be improved?
The issue of potential impact on species richness under potential climate
change conditions has largely been examined in alpine regions (Moen et al. 2008).
Furthermore, a paper examined potential outcomes of species richness in Europe
(Thuiller et al. 2006). However, the boreal forest of North America is also receiving
attention in modeling distribution of tree species (McKenney et al. 2007). In
addition, vegetation changes were modeled for northern Alaska in relation to
climate change conditions (Euskirchen et al. 2009).
Introduction to Synthesis
What is Synthetic Writing?
What are the components of Synthetic Writing?
EXERCISE
Read the following paragraph and answer the following questions:
Is this effective synthetic writing?
If not, what is missing? How could it be improved?
Visual attention has not been linked directly to a specific part of the brain. A study
found that, when brain activity was measured by fMRI, the left hemisphere was
activated when the subject oriented visual attention to the target. However, when
the subject got distracted and had to reorient himself to the target, brain activation
was lateralized to the right side of the brain. Areas of the brain that have been
associated with visual attention include the parietal lobe, the thalamus, the occipital
lobe, the inferior-temporal cortex, and the prefrontal cortex.30 Therefore, the
attention deficits seen in the children with high risk FASD facial features could be
due a number of developmental defects in either hemisphere of the brain. Poor
brain development due to alcohol exposure in the regions of the brain associated
with attention could account for the high rates of Attention Deficit Hyper-active
Disorder seen in FASD children.18,14
Introduction to Synthesis
What is Synthetic Writing?
What are the components of Synthetic Writing?
EXERCISE
Read the following paragraph and answer the following questions:
Is this effective synthetic writing?
If not, what is missing? How could it be improved?
Several studies have implied that administration of ethanol affects Ca2+ levels
intracellularly and therefore also has an effect on the rate of granule cell migration
(Kumada et al, 2006). It has been found that when ethanol is present, the frequency
of spontaneous Ca2+ levels is substantially reduced (Kumada et al, 2006). Even low
levels of ethanol exposure have been shown to decrease intracellular Ca2+
concentration by altering calcium channels (Kumada et al, 2006). Calcium dyes were
used to trace Ca2+ concentration in cells with varying concentrations of ethanol, and
it was found that levels decreased dose-dependently, suggesting that since Ca2+ is
important in granule cell migration, ethanol must work by lowering it’s levels
intracellularly (Kumada et al, 2006).
Introduction to Synthesis
What is Synthetic Writing?
What are the components of Synthetic Writing?
EXERCISE
Read the following paragraph and answer the following questions:
Is this effective synthetic writing?
If not, what is missing? How could it be improved?
Whether or not humans are conscious of it, we process pheromones which we put
out constantly. A study done by Berglund, Lindstrom and Savic suggests that the
processing specific human pheromones differs based on sexual preference. 4,16‐
androstadien‐3‐one (AND) and estra‐1,3,4(10),16‐tetraen‐3‐ol (EST) are both likely
components of human pheromones which were studied by Berglund et al., who
determined that not only did subjects respond to these pheromones, but they
responded differently based on sexual preference (6). AND is a compound in sweat
which is about 10 times higher in men than in women, whereas EST is concentrated
in the urine of pregnant women. Heterosexual women and homosexual men showed
activation in preoptic and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei when AND was
smelled, and the amygdala, piriform cortex and anterior insular cortex when
smelling EST. In Berglund’s study, lesbian women showed a lack of preoptic
activation with AND as compared to heterosexual women. Also, homosexual women
shared activation of a hypothalamic cluster with homosexual men when exposed to
EST (6).