A brief review of rat thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and
... TRH administration under pentobarbital anesthesia increased TSH level more than
The response of blood TSH to TRH administration under ether anesthesia was less
than non-anesthetized control.
The slope of dose-response curve of blood TSH increase by TRH was larger under
The Pineal Gland, via Melatonin, Protects DNA, Coordinates the
... with age is also unlikely to be the cause of lowered plasma concentrations as urinary
6-hydroxymelatonin, melatonin's main metabolite, is reduced proportionally (71).
The sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland may be the cause of decreased
melatonin production with age. Pinealocytes have B-adre ...
THE SUBFORNICAL ORGAN AND AREA POSTREMA MEDIATE
... expenditure and autonomic function via activation of its receptor (ObRb) in nuclei in the
central nervous system (CNS). This thesis investigates the involvement of two sensory
circumventricular organs (CVOs), the subfornical organ (SFO) and area postrema (AP),
in mediating the central effects of lep ...
... I'm not an expert in Anabolic Steroid Induced Hypogonadism (ASIH) and I have not yet treated
someone with such a problem, nor have I read extensive literature on it and it's treatment. John
Crisler, D.O., has much more experience in this regard, since he has treated so many patients
who have had ASI ...
Thyroid hormone binding proteins as novel targets for hydroxylated
... strict regulations on the emission of PCDDs and PCDFs from municipal and chemical
waste incinerators in the Netherlands. Unlike PCDDs and PCDFs, PCBs mixtures have
been commercially produced and used for industrial purposes from the early 1930s. The
intrinsic properties that made PCBs suitable for t ...
Morphological Study of Sella Turcica in Gujarat State
... Introduction: Sella turcica is situated on the intracranial surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. 80% of the
sella is occupied by the pituitary gland. Any abnormality or pathology in the gland could manifest from an altered
size, shape and functions of the sella turcica. Around 13% of brain tumo ...
Adaptive Depression in Synaptic Transmission in the
... 1994), we hypothesized that CIH would
augment NTS activity not only as a direct
result of the increase in chemoreceptor afferent activity but also through changes in
synaptic transmission. This could occur as
an activity-dependent response or via a direct effect of hypoxia at the synapse. Extracellu ...
The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)–immune system
... stimulatory effects on IFN-γ production in ﬁve normoprolactinemic
women (Grasso et al., 1998). In healthy controls, intravenous TRH led
to an increase in interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations (Komorowski
et al., 1994; Trejbal et al., 2001), while in patients with hypothyroidism
(with high baseline IL- ...
The Thyroid and Its Control
... sluggish response, indicating perhaps two levels of thyroid control in this situation,
a rapid TSH response modulating a slower autoregulatory intrinsic control.
Large doses of iodide will reduce the T:S[I-] acutely due to saturation of the iodide
pump by its substrate (158). There is an associated ...
Stereology of the Thyroid Gland in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose
... caloric supply . Thyroid hormones affect mammalian metabolism by a thermogenic action, in which carbohydrate, lipid and
protein metabolism can be accelerated in tissues and thus, increase
the amount of metabolic heat produced at a given time .
Thyroid hormones are also indispensable for normal ...
The Estrous Cycle
... produced by the animal’s body. These compounds do have similar effects on the reproductive
system of cattle. Compounds that have actions similar to progesterone are called progestins.
- Repository of the Academy`s Library
... topics. If there are areas that have not been covered in sufficient detail, it would be helpful to know
specifically what those are so we can make the appropriate changes. As noted by the above
Reviewer, the detail is helpful to allow the reader to best understand the material.
Point 2: I would reco ...
Altered Midline Axon Pathways and Ectopic Neurons in the
... and autonomic f unction, little is known of the developmental
mechanisms that give rise to the complex patterns of neuronal
connectivity in this anterior C NS region. Most neurons of the
neuroendocrine hypothalamus are born starting at approximately
embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and subsequently migrat ...
Induction of the Secretion of LH and GH by Orexin A and Ghrelin is
... significantly between groups.
The weakening of leptin activity due to treatment with its antagonist (SOLA)
strengthened the individual effects of orexin A and ghrelin on LH secretion in
this study. Intracerebroventricular infusions of orexin A alone did not significantly
affect the blood plasma LH c ...
Plasma Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Concentrations in the Rat
... addition, the immunoreactivity of plasma concentrates
was destroyed by incubation with 20% normal human
serum at 37°C for 60 min (Table III).
T4 treatment. Plasma TRH concentrations in pools
from rats receiving 5, 10, 15, or 50 sAg L-T4 daily for 7
days are shown in Table IV. Mean plasma TRH concent ...
TRPV1 Receptors in the Central Nervous System: Potential for
... IV, V and VI layer neurons of the adult cerebral cortex was observed . Toth and colleagues  investigated the subcellular
localization of brain TRPV1, by immuno-electron microscopy.
TRPV1-like staining was observed in the synapses (mostly, but not
exclusively in post-synaptic dendritic spines ...
Neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH release and expression of
... responsible for the decrease in GnRH biosynthesis and release as well as the
non-ovulatory state of ewes during a long photoperiod. It is worth noting,
that the level of GnRH mRNA in the hypothalamus is the net result of the
transcriptional activities of the GnRH gene, the degradation of transcripti ...
Kisspeptin Expert review (Bloom) FINAL - Spiral
... Numerous investigators have demonstrated that central or peripheral injection of
Kisspeptin to all mammalian species studied to date (including rats [8-11], mice
[12;13], sheep [13-15], hamsters , monkeys , pigs , cows  and
humans [20;21]), potently stimulates gonadotrophin release. ...
Leptin Signaling in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii
... The major new findings from this study are as follows: (1) leptin
receptor signaling in the NTS increases SNA to kidney but not
to BAT; (2) sympathoactivation to microinjection of leptin into
the NTS was associated with an increase in arterial pressure; and
(3) the renal sympathetic nerve responses ...
A novel GABA-mediated corticotropin
... anterior pituitary (18), were also not significantly different between
genotypes (wild type, 3.5 ± 1.0 pg/ml; GAD67+/GFP, 4.8 ± 3.3 pg/ml;
n = 5 mice per experimental group; Fig. 1C). We also examined plasma
corticosterone and ACTH levels in response to a single 30-min bout of
restraint-induced stre ...
Endogenous morphine-like compound immunoreactivity increases
... endogenous morphine formation. As Parkinson’s disease results from the loss of dopamine and is associated with central pain,
we considered how endogenous morphine is regulated in the untreated and L-DOPA-treated parkinsonian brain. However, as
the cellular origin and overall distribution of endogeno ...
IGF-1 in the Brain as a Regulator of Reproductive
... IGF-1 is a potent neurotrophic factor for neurons and glial cells during development (50). In the
adult central nervous system, IGF-1 is a mediator of synaptic plasticity (51), regulating neuronal
survival in response to injury. Many studies have demonstrated the presence of IGF-1 mRNA and
Hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds: mechanisms matter but
... by reducing hormone production that would not have
potential detrimental effects on the embryo. In cases
where maximum hormone production is restrained,
the FDH would allow for elevated levels in eggs at the
expense of hormone concentrations in the mother. The
FDH can explain negative correlation be ...
The impact of diabetes on cardiac remodelling after
... Diabetes (DM) increases mortality after myocardial infarction and deteriorates postischaemic cardiac remodelling. This study investigated possible implications of thyroid
hormone (TH) signalling in either reducing or preventing this response. TH signalling
has a regulatory role in metabolism, cardia ...
Sexually dimorphic nucleus
The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is an ovoid, densely packed cluster of large cells located in the medial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus which is believed to be related to sexual behavior in animals.Thus far, for all species of mammals investigated, the SDN has been repeatedly found to be considerably larger in males than in females. The volume of the SDN was 2.2 times as large in males as in females and contained 2.1 times as many cells. The human SDN was elongated in females and more spherical in males. No sex differences were observed in the human SDN in either cell density or mean diameter of the cell nuclei. The volume and cell number of the human SDN considerably decreases with age; although, the decrease in cell number is both sex and age-specific. In males, a substantial decrease in the cell number of the human SDN was observed between the age of 50-60 years. Cell death was more common in females than males, especially among those older than 70 years of age. The SDN cell number in females can drop to 10-15% that found in early childhood.SDN and its homologues exist widely in human, mammal, and some other animal brains, including: the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3) in humans; ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA/AH) in sheep; sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in rats; anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc) in macaques; specific area in medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in quails; etc.↑ ↑ ↑ ↑