Download BIO201 Crimando Vocab 6 BIO201 Nervous System I Vocabulary

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Transcript
BIO201 Crimando Vocab 6
BIO201 Nervous System I Vocabulary Review
Basic vocabulary is the foundational step in learning a new subject. This brief list touches many of the terms
you will be learning in this section of the course. Use your notes from class, lecture powerpoints and text for
references in answering these.
Fill in the blanks as you take notes in class or read and study from the text.
Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the: ____________________ and ____________________
Fight-or-Flight division: ____________________
Calming and digestion-activating division: ____________________
Afferent neurons carry these types of signals: ____________________
Efferent neurons carry these types of signals: ____________________
Neurons that reside entirely within the CNS: ____________________ or ____________________
Neuron cell body: ____________________ or ____________________
Concentrated regions of rough endoplasmic reticulum: ____________________
Neuron processes that act as receivers: ____________________
Neuron process that acts as transmitter: ____________________
Junction between neuron and target cell: ____________________
Two-way movement of materials within an axon: ____________________
Supporting cells in the nervous system: ____________________
Cells in CNS that form myelin: ____________________
Small macrophages in CNS: ____________________
Epithelial cells in CNS that produce cerebrospinal fluid: ____________________
Cells that form blood-brain-barrier: ____________________
Cells in PNS that form myelin: ____________________
Protective cells in peripheral nerve ganglia: ____________________
Insulating layer of many membrane layers around neuron fiber: ____________________
Gaps or thin regions in myelin layer: ____________________
Value of the resting membrane potential on a “resting” neuron: ____________________
Cation more concentrated in extracellular fluid (ECF): ____________________
Cation more concentrated in intracellular fluid (ICF): ____________________
Ion channel that opens in response to chemical binding: ____________________
Ion channel that opens in response to local change in membrane voltage: ____________________
Short-range, non-perpetuating change in membrane potential: ____________________
Long-range, perpetuating change in membrane potential: ____________________
Change in membrane voltage shifting to more positive value: ____________________ or ____________________
Change in membrane voltage shifting to more negative value: ____________________ or ____________________
Membrane potential level at which voltage-gated Na+ channels open: ____________________
Period of time where no stimulus can elicit another action potential: ____________________
Period of time where stronger stimulus needed for another action potential: ____________________
“Jumping” conduction of action potential in myelinated fiber: ____________________
Post-synaptic potential making neuron more likely to fire: ____________________
Post-synaptic potential making neuron less likely to fire: ____________________
Ability of neurons to enhance communication pathways with increased use: ____________________
Presynaptic receptors used to clear synaptic cleft: ____________________
Enzyme that degrades acetylcholine: ____________________
Enzyme that degrades monoamine neurotransmitters: ____________________
Brain and spinal cord tissue composed of mostly neuronal cell bodies and dendrites: ____________ matter
Brain and spinal cord tissue composed of mostly myelinated axons: ____________ matter
Bundles of myelinated axons in the CNS: ____________________
Number of pairs of spinal nerves that exit spinal cord: ____________________
Specific area of skin supplying sensory signals to specific spinal nerves: ____________________
Tapered end of spinal cord: ____________________
Bundle of nerve roots in vertebral canal at caudal end of spinal cord: ____________________
Fibrous strand anchoring spinal cord and meninges into coccyx: ____________________
Weblike intersection and branching of several spinal nerves: ____________________
Set of membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord: ____________________
Outermost tough layer of meninges: ____________________
Space between outer layer of meninges and vertebrae: ____________________
Thin membrane and loose mesh of fibers deep to dura: ____________________
Meningeal space where cerebrospinal fluid is located: ____________________
Delicate membrane on surface of brain and spinal cord: ____________________
General structural appearance of gray matter in spinal cord: ____________________
Bundles of white matter in spinal cord: ____________________ or ____________________
Roots carrying afferent signals into spinal cord: ____________________
Roots carrying efferent signals out of spinal cord: ____________________
Bundle of sensory nerve cell bodies just outside spinal cord: ____________________
Sensory tracts in spinal cord: ____________________
Motor tracts in spinal cord: ____________________
Crossing-over of tracts from one side of spinal cord to other: ____________________
Pain perception: ____________________
Body position perception: ____________________
Ascending tract carrying pain, temp., pressure, itch, crude touch: ____________________
Ascending tract carrying body position, joint-tension signals: ____________________
“Gateway to Cortex” brain structure, sensory relation station: ____________________
Cerebral destination for somatosensory signals: ____________________
Location for upper motor neuron somas: ____________________
Location for lower motor neuron somas: ____________________
Demyelinating disease in CNS: ____________________
Degenerative disease of lower motor neurons with fibrosis in spinal cord: ____________________
Bundle of neuronal axons and connective tissue in PNS: ____________________
Cluster of neuronal cell bodies in PNS: ____________________
Stretch receptors in skeletal muscle: ____________________
Classic patellar-reflex is an example of this spinal reflex type: ____________________
Reflex that prevents excessive contraction of a muscle: ____________________
Spinal reflex activating motor-withdrawal responses: ____________________ or ____________________
Reflex activating motor extension responses on opposite side: ____________________
General term for reflex response on opposite of body from stimulus: ____________________
General term for reflex that activates antagonistic set of muscles: ____________________