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Transcript
Methods to Study the Brain
The Brain
How do we learn about the brain & its functions?
Tools of discovery
1. Clinical observation (case study) -
Phineas Gage
– The Story of Phineas Gage (A
Reenactment) – Module 25 of The
Brain Series (12:00)
Tools of Discovery
2. Manipulating the brain
a. Lesions – purposely destroying a part
of the brain and observing the results.
b. Brain Stimulation (Show at :40-:50 sec)
Tools of Discovery
3. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
– shows the brain’s electrical activity.
4. Major Imaging Techniques
Allows us to look inside the brain without surgical intrusion.
CT Scan
Structural MRI
PET Scan
Functional MRI
CT Scan
(Computed Tomography)
• Much-improved version of x-ray imaging.
• Takes a series of cross-sectional photographs, which are then put
together to form a three-dimensional image.
PET Scan
(positron emission tomography)
• Reveal the activity of different areas
• Shows consumption of radioactive glucose (active neurons use
more glucose) as the subject performs various mental activities.
MRI
(magnetic resonance imaging)
• Spinning atoms within the brain are aligned in a strong magnetic
field.
• A brief pulse of radio waves disorients the aligned atoms, and the
signals released as the atoms realign are processed to form images.
Two Types of MRI:
Structural MRI
Functional MRI
Shows structures within the
brain
Show functioning of different
structures in the brain by
measuring blood flow.
Click below to view an example
Click below to view an example