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Dictionary of World Biography
Mackenzie, William Lyon (1795–1861). Canadian
politician. An emigrant from Scotland (1820) he
founded in York (now Toronto) a newspaper, the
Colonial Advocate in which he demanded selfgovernment for Upper Canada. Several times he was
elected to the assembly and as often expelled. In 1837
he led an armed rebellion that proved a complete
fiasco. Mackenzie took refuge in the US but returned
(1849) under an amnesty and served (1850–58) in
the legislature. His main achievement was to bring
home to the British Government the urgency of
constitutional reform. His grandson was W. L.
Mackenzie *King.
MacKillop, Mary Helen (St Mary of the Cross
MacKillop) (1842–1909). Australian Catholic
religious, born in Melbourne. Of Scottish descent,
in 1866 in Penola, South Australia, she founded the
Order of the Josephites (Congregation of the Sisters of
St Joseph of the Sacred Heart), devoted to Aboriginals
and the poor. She had a turbulent relationship with
superiors and was briefly excommunicated (1871).
Her beatification was proclaimed in Sydney in 1995
by *John Paul II and canonisation occurred in Rome
in October 2010.
Gardiner, P., Mary MacKillop. 1993.
Mackinder, Sir Halford John (1861–1947). English
geographer. His appointment as reader in geography at
Oxford (1887) marked a belated English recognition
of the subject as an academic discipline. In 1899
he made the first recorded ascent of Mt Kenya. He
directed the London School of Economics 1903–08,
became professor of geography at London University
1908–15 and a Conservative MP 1910–22. His
application of geography to political questions was
borrowed by Karl *Haushofer, associated with the
Eurasian ‘Heartland’ theory. Mackinder’s books
include Britain and the British Seas (1902).
Gilbert, E. W., Sir Halford Mackinder 1861–1947.
1963.
McKinley, William (1843–1901). 25th President
of the US 1897–1901. He served in the Union
army during the Civil War, studied law and served
as a Republican in Congress 1877–83 and 1885–91.
Throughout his political career he supported the
high tariff policy of the industrialists and it was with
their support that, after serving as Governor of Ohio
1892–96, he was elected President (1896), defeating
William Jennings *Bryan, and again in 1900. His
administration was notable for the successful SpanishAmerican War by which the US gained control of the
Philippines and Cuba. McKinley, re-elected (1900)
as a champion of imperialism, was shot at Buffalo
station by an anarchist, Leon Czolgosz, and died eight
days later. Theodore *Roosevelt succeeded.
Leech, M. K., In the Days of McKinley. 1959; Vidal,
G., Empire 1987.
Mackintosh, Charles Rennie (1868–1928). Scottish
architect and designer, born in Glasgow. A pioneer
of the ‘Modern Movement’, Mackintosh discarded
historicism in his buildings and became the centre of a
group in Glasgow which, having aroused Continental
interest, was asked to exhibit in Vienna (1901) and
Turin (1902). His Glasgow School of Art (1896–99),
designed when he was 28, is, with its great area of
window glass, remarkably advanced for its time.
Howarth, T., Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the
Modern Movement. 1952.
MacLeish, Archibald (1892–1982). American poet
and dramatist. In his earlier lyrics, e.g. Frescoes for Mr
Rockefeller’s City (1933), he showed himself to be a
social critic but was better known for his long poem,
Conquistador which won the Pulitzer Prize (1932).
He lived in France for many years and his poetry was
deeply influenced by *Eliot and *Pound. As Librarian
of Congress 1939–44 and Assistant Secretary of
State 1944–45, he took an active role in preparing
war propaganda and was a founder of UNESCO
(1945). He won a second Pulitzer Prize (1953) for
his Collected Poems. His play, J. B., a religious parable
based on the story of Job, was produced in 1958 and
won a third Pulitzer. Edmund *Wilson despised him
as an opportunistic mediocrity.
MacLeod, George Fielden, Baron MacLeod (1895–
1991). Scottish clergyman. Educated at Winchester
and Oxford, he won an MC in World War I and in
1938 founded the Iona Community which attracted
international interest. He was Moderator of the
Church of Scotland 1957–58. A notable broadcaster
and preacher, he called himself ‘an uncomfortable
socialist and a reluctant pacifist’. He inherited a
baronetcy but refused to use the title, but accepted a
life peerage in 1967 and later joined the Greens.
Macleod, Iain Norman (1913–1970). English
Conservative politician. After war service, he became
a journalist and writer on bridge, was an MP 1950–
70, and a reforming minister 1952–63, declining to
serve under *Home. He wrote a biography of Neville
*Chamberlain (1961), edited The Spectator 1963–
65 and died suddenly after four weeks as *Heath’s
Chancellor of the Exchequer 1970.
McLuhan, (Herbert) Marshall (1911–1980).
Canadian media analyst, born in Alberta. Educated
at Manitoba and Cambridge, he taught in the US
and Canada, directing the centre for culture and
technology at Toronto University 1964–76. His work
examined the impact of mass media and advertising.
His controversial books include The Mechanical Bride
(1951), The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962), Understanding
Media (1964), The Medium is the Massage (1967), War
and Peace in the Global Village (1968), Take Today:
Executive as Drop-Out (1972) and City as Classroom
(1977). He defined ‘media’ as extensions of human
capacity and included electric light, vehicles and tools
533