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Dictionary of World Biography he became, in the conspiracy by which her husband was deposed (1327) in favour of her son, the boyking *Edward III, and soon murdered, presumably on Mortimerâs orders. Three years later the hatred inspired by Mortimerâs rule encouraged Edward to have him seized and hanged at Tyburn without trial. Another Roger Mortimer (1374â1398), his descendant, became heir presumptive to *Richard II and (through the marriage of his daughter, Anne) the source of the Yorkist claim to the throne. Morton, James Douglas, 4th Earl of (c.1516â1581). Scottish nobleman. A Protestant, he was (from 1557) at the centre of the plots and intrigues against *Mary Queen of Scots. He took part in *Rizzioâs murder and was almost certainly privy to that of *Darnley. It was he who discovered the âcasket letterâ which, if genuine, implicated Mary. After the death of *Moray he was twice Regent of Scotland, 1572â78 and 1578â80, for *James VI and attempted to restore tranquillity to a land torn by religious dissension and war. A party of the nobles plotted to secure his dismissal. He seized Stirling Castle and the young king, but a further plot resulted in his execution for the murder of Darnley. Morton, John (1423â1500). English ecclesiastic and lawyer. After various turns of fortune during the Wars of the Roses he became *Henry VIIâs most trusted adviser: he was Archbishop of Canterbury 1486â1500, Lord Chancellor 1487â1500, and became a cardinal (1493). It is said (though the story is probably apocryphal) that he assisted the kingâs extortions by impaling potential victims on the horns of a dilemma known as Mortonâs Fork, but he certainly used his visits to nobles to assess their wealth: if they had a costly retinue, he concluded they were rich and able to pay heavy taxes; if modest, that they were avaricious and equally able to pay. Morton, William Thomas Green (1819â1868). American dentist. Famous for introducing ether as an anaesthetic, he used it (1846) at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, in the first successful major operation using general anaesthesia. Keys, T. E., The History of Surgical Anaesthesia. 1945. Moseley, Henry Gwynn-Jeffreys (1887â1915). English physicist. Lecturer in physics at Manchester University under *Rutherford, he studied the X-ray spectra of many elements and discovered (1913) that the frequency of the characteristic line in each spectrum increases in regular sequence from one element to the next in the periodic table. He thus showed the fundamental importance of the atomic number of an element, which defines the element and is directly related to its atomic structure. He was killed at Gallipoli. 596 Moses (Moshe, probably from the Egyptian mos, âchildâ) (c.14th-13th centuries BCE). Hebrew leader and law-giver, born in Egypt. According to the Pentateuch, he was a Levite, hidden in bullrushes to avoid slaughter by the Egyptians, found and brought up by Pharaohâs daughter, an account paralleling birth legends in mythology. After killing an Egyptian overseer, he took refuge with the Midianites and married Zipporah. After many years he received in a vision an order from Jehovah to lead the Jewish people from their captivity in Egypt to Palestine. The 10 plagues that afflicted Egypt are reputed to have been among the reasons why Pharaoh allowed them to depart. Moses and his brother Aaron led them to Mount Sinai where the âTen Commandmentsâ were received. Moses led his people for many years in the wilderness but died at the age of 120 on Mount Nebo (Sinai) in sight of the âPromised Landâ of Palestine, which he never reached. The Pentateuch took its present form about 600 years after his time and he was almost certainly a composite figure. Freud, S., Moses and Monotheism 1939. Moses, Grandma (Anna Mary Robertson) (1860â 1961). American painter. A farmerâs wife, she took up painting at the age of 77 and won fame for her gay and spontaneous pictures of rural scenes. Mosley, Sir Oswald Ernald, 6th Baronet (1896â 1980). British politician. His first wife, Lady Cynthia Blanche Mosley (1898â1933), daughter of Lord *Curzon, was a Labour MP 1929â31. He became a Conservative MP (1918) but joined the Labour Party (1924) and was a member of Ramsay MacDonaldâs Government 1929â30, resigning because of its failure to cope with unemployment. He formed the New Party (1931) and founded (1932) the British Union of Fascists. The violence of his followers was a feature of prewar politics. In World War II he was detained under defence regulations. In 1948 he started a new Union movement. His second wife was Diana *Mitford. Mosley, N., Rules of the Game: Sir Oswald and Lady Cynthia Mosley, 1896â1933. 1982; Beyond the Pale: Sir Oswald Mosley 1933â1980. 1983. Mostel, Zero (Samuel Joel) (1915â1977). American actor, born in Brooklyn. A masterful mime, skilled in drama and comedy, he starred in Ulysses in Nighttown (1958), *Ionescoâs Rhinoceros (1961, stage and film) and created the role of Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof (1964). He starred in the film The Producers (1968). Motley, John Lothrop (1814â1877). American historian. He wrote the classic The Rise of the Dutch Republic (1856) and served as US Minister to Austria 1861â67 and Great Britain 1869â70. Moulin, Jean (1899â1943). French administrator and Resistance leader. Prefect of Chartres 1936â40, he became the courageous leader of the Underground, supported de *Gaulleâs leadership of the Free French and encouraged him to embrace more progressive policies. He died in German custody and is much commemorated in France.