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Dictionary of World Biography
significance. He won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize and
was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on 4 April
1968 by James Earl Ray. His work was continued by
his widow, Coretta Scott King (née Scott) (1927–
2006), a singer, lecturer and writer.
King, Philip Gidley (1758–1808). English officer
and administrator, born in Launceston, Cornwall.
He joined the Royal Navy as a servant in 1771.
Responsible for settling Norfolk Island as a convict
settlement, he was lieutenant-governor there 1788–
90; 1791–96. Supported by *Phillip and *Banks,
he was appointed Governor of New South Wales
1800–06. Hot tempered but an able administrator,
he clashed with the New South Wales Corps,
worked diligently to create an economic base for
the colony, promoting flax, wool, whaling, sealing
and coal mining and encouraged the exploration of
Port Phillip. He retreated into self-pity (not without
reason), became ill and died, barely 50.
King, Sir (Frederick) Truby (1858–1938). New
Zealand physician. He founded many ‘mothercraft’
and infant welfare clinics and helped to make New
Zealand’s infant mortality rate the lowest in the world.
King, W(illiam) L(yon) Mackenzie (1874–1950).
Canadian Liberal politician. Grandson of William
Lyon *Mackenzie, he gained a PhD in industrial
sociology at Harvard, was Deputy Minister of
Labour 1900–08 and a member of the Canadian
House of Commons 1908–11 and 1919–48. On Sir
Wilfred *Laurier’s death in 1919, King (then out of
parliament) was elected Liberal Party leader. Prime
Minister of Canada for a record period, over three
terms 1921–26, 1926–30 and 1935–48 and also
Foreign Minister 1926–30 and 1935–46, he secured
a degree of national unity by persuading French
Canadians that the Liberal party would protect their
interests. However, his free trade policies led to the
increasing dominance of the Canadian economy by
US commercial interests, creating many social and
political problems. His view that the relationship
between each dominion and Britain should be
completely equal was embodied in the Statute of
Westminster (1931), based on the 1926 Westminster
Conference where he had played a leading role.
Externally he insisted on Canada’s complete freedom
of action and shunned all alliances, nevertheless he
brought Canada into World War II on the side of
Britain. On his retirement (1948), Louis *St Laurent
became Prime Minister and Liberal Leader, and
King received the OM. He was unmarried and an
introverted mystic.
464
Crimea (8 volumes, 1863–87), a brilliant and detailed
narrative based upon the papers of the commander in
chief, Lord *Raglan. He was a Liberal MP 1857–68.
Kingsford-Smith, Sir Charles Edward (1897–
1935). Australian aviator, born in Brisbane. Originally
an engineering apprentice, he was a pilot in World
War I, winning an MC in 1917. In the three-engined
Fokker monoplane Southern Cross he flew (with
Charles *Ulm) from Los Angeles to Brisbane in June
(1928), from Sydney to London (1929) and from
Ireland to New York (1930). By 1931 he was the first
airman to have flown around the world. He was lost
off the coast of Burma, trying to break the EnglandAustralia record.
FitzSimons, P., Charles Kingsford-Smith and Those
Magnificent Men. 2009.
Kingsley, Charles (1819–1875). English clergyman
and author. One of the founders of the Christian
Socialist movement, he became rector (1844) of
Eversley, Hampshire, a living he held for the rest of
his life. His social doctrines are most clearly expressed
in his novels Yeast (1850),Alton Locke (1851) and Two
Years Ago (1857). His historical romances include
Westward Ho! (1855), Hypatia (1853) and Hereward
the Wake (1866) and he also wrote the children’s books
The Heroes (1856, stories from Greek mythology)
and The Water Babies (1863). He was professor of
modern history at Cambridge 1860–69. His brother,
Henry Kingsley (1830–1876), also a novelist, is best
remembered for Ravenshoe (1861). His niece Mary
Kingsley (1862–1900), wrote with unusual insight
about native problems in West Africa, where she
travelled extensively.
Kinnock, Neil Gordon, Baron Kinnock (1942– ).
British Labour politician. The son of a labourer and a
nurse, he was educated in Wales, lectured in Cardiff,
worked for the Workers’ Educational Association and
became MP 1970–94. He served as Shadow Minister
for Education 1979–83 and succeeded Michael
*Foot as Leader of the Opposition 1983–92. He was
appointed as a commissioner of the European Union
1994–2004 and Vice President 1999–2004.
Kinsey, Alfred C(harles) (1894–1956). American
zoologist and social scientist. The publication of
his Sexual Behaviour of the Human Male (1948)
and Sexual Behaviour of the Human Female (1953)
roused considerable controversy, caused partly by the
nature of the theme but more particularly because his
conclusions were reached mainly from answers (not
necessarily truthful) to standard questionnaires.
Pickersgill, J. W., and Forster, D. F., The Mackenzie
King Record. 1960–70.
Jones, J. H., Alfred C. Kinsey: A public/private life.
1997.
Kinglake, Alexander William (1808–1891). English
historian. He wrote an account of his travels in the
east in Eothen (1844). In 1854 he followed the British
army to the Crimea and wrote History of the War in the
Kinski, Klaus (Nikolaus Gunther Naksznski) (1926–
1991). Polish-German film actor, born in Gdansk.
He began to act as a prisoner of war, appeared in 200
German films, then attracted international attention