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Dictionary of World Biography My Correct Views on Everything (2005) and Why is Something Better than Nothing? (2007). He argued that âWe learn history not in order to know how to behave or how to succeed, but to know who we are.â great offensive that ended with his advance to Berlin in March 1945. In May he liberated Prague. He was made a marshal and commanded the Warsaw Pact armies 1955â60. Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasilyevich (1874?-1920). Russian sailor. He reorganised the navy after the Russo-Japanese War (1904â05), in which he had taken part. In World War I he commanded the Black Sea fleet from 1916, and after the Bolsheviks seized power (1917) headed a counter-revolutionary government in Siberia. Despite early successes on his westward march he was checked by the Bolsheviks and forced to retreat. Eventually, he was captured andÂ shot. KÃ¶nigsmark, Philipp Christoph, Count of (1665â 1694). Swedish adventurer. While in the service of Ernst August of Hanover he became aware of the unhappy plight of Sophia Dorothea, wife of Elector Georg Ludwig (later *George I of Great Britain). Whether he was her lover or whether his motives were those of pure chivalry, he tried and failed to aid her to escape. He was arrested, disappeared and was almost certainly put to death, the unfortunate Sophia Dorothea being secluded at Ahlden Castle for the rest of her life. Kollontay, Aleksandra Mikhailovna (1872â1952). Russian revolutionary, feminist and politician. The daughter of a tsarist general, she joined the Bolsheviks in 1905, and after a Menshevik deviation, devoted herself to pacifism. She was *Leninâs Commissar for Public Welfare 1917â18, advocated free love and was dismissed for neglect of duties. She became Ambassador to Norway 1923â25 and 1927â30, Mexico 1925â27 and Sweden 1930â45. Porter, C., Alexandra Kollontai. 1981. Kollwitz, KÃ¤the (1867â1945). German graphic artist, born in East Prussia. She lived from 1891 in Berlin where both her life and art were a constant protest against poverty and oppression. Her artistic protest was made through representations of historic scenes, e.g. The Peasantsâ Revolt, realistic studies of working-class life, and illustrations to books, e.g. *Zolaâs Germinal, that expressed compassion for and indignation at the miseries of the poor. Her versatility allowed her to be expert at all the graphic arts, and even as a sculptor she managed by a rough-hewn technique to convey the same message as in her other works. Kollwitz, K. S. (ed. Zigrosser, C.), Prints and Drawings. 2nd ed. 1969. Kondratiev, Nikolai Dimitrievich (1892â1938). Russian economist. After examining statistics of prices, wages, interest and consumption in Europe and North America since the 1780s, Kondratiev identified âlong waves of cyclical characterâ which Joseph *Schumpeter named for him. If his cycles are extended to the future (which he did not attempt) 1970â95 would be an era of downswing. He was imprisoned under *Stalin, shot and never rehabilitated. Konev, Ivan Stepanovich (1897â1973). Russian soldier. After serving as a private in World War I he rose rapidly under the Soviet regime. He distinguished himself in World War II as an army commander in the 1941 counter-offensive to the northwest of Moscow, and later in command of an army group during the Ukrainian campaigns, and the subsequent 470 Kooning, Willem de see de Kooning, Willem Koons, Jeff (1955âÂ ). American artist, born in Pennsylvania. His sculptures emphasised and reproduced the banal, and were completely out of scale, such as the huge Puppy, executed in flowers, which is now at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. His Balloon Dog (Orange) sold for $US58.4 million in 2013. Korda, Sir Alexander (Sandor) (1893â1956). British film producer and director, born in Hungary. Originally a journalist, he worked with his brothers Zoltan and Vincent, producing films in Budapest, Vienna, Berlin, Hollywood and Paris. He founded London Films in 1932. Many of his films were international successes, including The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), The Scarlet Pimpernel (1934), Rembrandt (1936), Things to Come (1936) and The Thief of Baghdad (1940). He married the Bombayborn actor Merle Oberon (1911â1979). Korda, M., Charmed Lives. 1979. Korngold, Erich Wolfgang (1897â1957). AustrianJewish-American composer, born in Brno. A prodigy, his opera Die Tote Stadt (The Dead City) (1920), set in Bruges, was an instant success. In the US from 1934 (naturalised 1943) he wrote scores for 21 films, winning two Oscars and he composed a violin concerto (1945) for Jascha *Heifetz. Kornilov, Lavr Georgyevich (1870â1918). Russian soldier. He served in the Russo-Japanese War (1904â 05), and in World War I as a divisional commander in Galicia, when, captured by the Austrians, he made a sensational escape. After the revolution (March 1917) he was appointed Commander in Chief but *Kerenskyâs refusal to satisfy his demands for the restoration of army discipline provoked him to a vain attempt to establish a military dictatorship. Kerensky had him arrested, but when he fell Kornilov escaped to join *Denikinâs anti-Bolshevik army on the Don, where he was killed in action.