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Dictionary of World Biography
complexity. Underlying his cheerful whimsy was a
vein of deep mysticism and melancholy, intensified by
his unhappy marriage. His law partner and biographer
W. H. Herndon wrote, ‘That man who thinks that
Lincoln calmly gathered his robes about him, waiting
for the people to call him, has a very erroneous
knowledge of Lincoln. He was always calculating
and planning ahead. His ambition was a little engine
that he knew no rest.’ Not a great administrator
but an outstanding moulder of public opinion,
he was devout in the manner of an 18th-century
deist and had little sympathy for the religion of the
Churches. Lincoln had a high-pitched, penetrating
voice, awkward hands and movements, and his feet
hurt. He was the first bearded president and may
have suffered from Marfan’s syndrome (a hereditary
heart and bone disease). He left an estate of $90,000.
Overwhelmingly, American historians have voted
him as the greatest of all US presidents. The Lincoln
Memorial in Washington, with its huge statue by
Daniel Chester French, was dedicated in 1922.
of a European war. He advised the Ford Motor
Company and United Airlines during World War II
but flew (unofficially) on 50 combat missions in the
Pacific. A consultant to Pan American Airways after
the war, he received the Pulitzer Prize for The Spirit
of St Louis (1953) and was made a brigadier in the
USAF reserve by President *Eisenhower (1954). He
married Anne Morrow (1906–2001), daughter of
US Senator Dwight Morrow. In 1932 their infant
son was murdered (1932), a crime for which Bruno
Richard Hauptmann was convicted and executed
(1936). She wrote books about aviation, including
Listen! The Wind (1938), essays and novels. After
1957, Lindbergh adroitly managed to maintain and
conceal three families in Germany simultaneously,
and to sire seven children. He became actively
involved in conservation issues, especially whales and
eagles, retired to Hawaii and died there.
His son Robert Todd Lincoln (1843–1926) was
Secretary of War under *Garfield and *Arthur 1881–
85, Ambassador to London 1889–93 and President
of the Pullman Railway Company 1897–1911.
Lindemann, Frederick Alexander see Cherwell,
1st Viscount
Thomas, B.P., Abraham Lincoln.1952; Vidal, G.,
Lincoln. 1984; Wills, G., Lincoln at Gettysburg. 1992;
Donald, D.H., Lincoln. 1995; Holzer, H., Lincoln at
Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln
President. 2004; Goodwin, D. K., Team of Rivals: The
Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. 2005; White, R.
C., A. Lincoln. A Biography. 2009; Gopnik, A., Angels
and Ages. 2009.
Lind, Jenny (Johanna Maria Lind-Goldschmidt)
(1820–1887). Swedish soprano. Long resident in
Britain, famed for her brilliant coloratura singing,
she was known as the ‘Swedish nightingale’. She
performed until 1849 mainly in opera, and later
in concerts and oratorios. She married the German
conductor and composer Otto Goldschmidt. Her
kindness and generosity added to her popularity.
Lindbergh, Charles A(ugustus) (1902–1974).
American aviator, born in Detroit. His Swedishborn father was a US congressman 1907–17. He
achieved unprecedented international fame when he
flew The Spirit of St Louis, a 220 hp monoplane, built
by the Ryan Co. of San Diego to his own design, on
the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from
Roosevelt Field, New York to Le Bourget, Paris (5809
km – 3610 miles, 33½ hours), 20–21 May 1927.
The ‘Lone Eagle’ received the Congressional Medal
of Honor and decorations from Britain, France and
Belgium. He worked (1936–38) with Alexis *Carrel
on devising an artificial heart. In 1936 he inspected
European air forces, met *Hitler and *Goering in
1938, expressed strong views about German military
superiority and joined the ‘America First’ movement
which campaigned for US neutrality in the event
Berg, A. S., Lindbergh. 1998; Lindbergh, R., Forward
From Here. 2008.
Lindsay, Norman (Alfred William) (1879–1969).
Australian artist and author, born in Creswick,
Victoria. He joined the Sydney Bulletin in 1901
and became its chief cartoonist, sharing its racist
and ultra-nationalist views. His voluptuous nudes,
in water colour, oil, pencil and etching, were deeply
controversial. His novels, including A Curate in
Bohemia (1913), Redheap (1930), Saturdee (1932)
and Age of Consent (1935) challenged middle-class
morality. The children’s book The Magic Pudding
(1918) was his most admired work. His brothers (Sir)
Lionel and (Sir) Daryl and sister Ruby were also well
known artists.
Linklater, Eric (1889–1974). Scottish author.
The best known of his humorous novels include Poet’s
Pub (1929), Juan in America (1931), Juan in China
(1937) and Private Angelo (1946).
Linlithgow, John Adrian Louis Hope, 1st Marquess
of (1860–1908). Scottish nobleman. As 7th Earl of
Hopetoun, he was a youthful governor of Victoria
1889–95. Appointed first Governor-General of the
Commonwealth of Australia 1901–03, he blundered
in nominating the New South Wales Premier,
Sir William Lyne, as first prime minister (1901)
instead of Edmund *Barton, leader of the federation
campaign. The youngest governor-general ever
appointed, created marquess in 1902, he became the
youngest to die. He served briefly as Secretary of State
for Scotland 1905. His son, Victor Alexander John
Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (1887–1952),
having declined appointment as Governor-General
of Australia (1935), became an unexpected choice
as Viceroy of India 1936–43, the longest term ever
served. He faced growing civil disobedience, World
War II and *Gandhi’s ‘Quit India’ campaign (1942).