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Dictionary of World Biography
Milligan, Spike (Terence Alan) see Goons, The
Millikan, Robert Andrews (1868–1953). American
physicist. In a brilliant academic career he was
professor of physics at the University of Chicago
1910–21 and then became Director of the Norman
Bridge Laboratory, Pasadena, and Chairman of the
California Institute of Technology 1921–46. He
carried out much research into atomic structure
and cosmic rays, but is best known for his accurate
determinations (1909) of the charge on the electron
from measurements of the charge picked up by oil
drops exposed to X-rays. He won the Nobel Prize for
Physics (1923).
Millin, Sarah Gertrude (née Leibson) (1889–1968).
South African writer, born in Lithuania. She wrote
17 novels, including The Dark River (1919), God’s
Stepchildren (1924) and The Herr Witchdoctor (1941)
and biographies of *Rhodes (1933) and *Smuts
(1936). She became an increasingly anxious supporter
of Apartheid.
Milne, A(lan) A(lexander) (1882–1956). British
author, born in Scotland. He was assistant editor
of Punch (1906–14) and later wrote successful
comedies, e.g. Wurzel Flummery (1917), Mr Pim
Passes By (1919), and The Dover Road (1922), but
he is best known as the author of children’s books
written originally for his son Christopher Robin:
When We Were Very Young (1924), Winnie the Pooh
(1926), Now We Are Six (1927) and The House at Pooh
Corner (1928). He dramatised Kenneth *Grahame’s
Wind in the Willows as Toad of Toad Hall.
Thwaite, A., A.A. Milne. 1990.
Milner, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount (1854–
1923). British administrator and politician, born
in Germany. Educated at Tübingen, London and
Oxford, he became a journalist, edited Arnold
*Toynbee’s work The Industrial Revolution and helped
to found Toynbee Hall. Undersecretary of Finance
in Egypt 1890–92, he returned as Chairman of
the Board of Inland Revenue 1892–97. As High
Commissioner for South Africa 1897–1905 and
Governor of Cape Colony 1897–1901, he worked
closely with *Rhodes and pushed *Kruger towards
war (1899). With *Kitchener he negotiated the Treaty
of Vereeniging which ended the Boer War (1902) and
was created Viscount. He governed Transvaal and the
Orange Free State until 1905, introduced Chinese
indentured labour and with his ‘Kindergarten’ of
young Oxford-trained advisers (including Lionel
Curtis, Leo *Amery, John *Buchan, and Philip Kerr)
attempted to set up representative institutions. He
became the ideologist of a British Commonwealth
which was to be an organic ‘race-empire’ with a
prescribed constitution. In the House of Lords he
led the ‘die-hard’ opposition to *Asquith and *Lloyd
George (1909–11) and covertly supported a coup
in Ulster against Home Rule proposals (1913). He
served in *Lloyd George’s Cabinet 1916–21, pushed
for a unified command in France under *Foch and
campaigned for Imperial Preference.
Milnes, Richard Monckton, 1st Baron Houghton
(1809–1885). British politician and literary patron.
Having spent much of his early life in travel, he
was MP 1837–63 for Pontefract (where he lived
the life of a cultural dilettante at Fryston Hall),
sponsoring such liberal causes as slave emancipation
and women’s rights. Through his support his friend
*Tennyson became Poet Laureate, and he early
perceived *Swinburne’s genius. He wrote poetry and
travel books which recorded such adventures as his
penetration of an eastern harem. Disraeli depicted
him in Tancred as Mr Vavasour. His son became
Marquess of *Crewe.
Milosevic, Slobodan
politician. After a career in student politics, he became
a Communist Party administrator and bureaucrat in
Belgrade, involved in the gas industry and banking,
and rose to be head of the Serbian CP. After the
breakup of the former Yugoslavia, he became President
of Serbia 1989–97, then won the ceremonial post
of President of Yugoslavia 1997–2000, expecting to
exercise power through subordinates. He bore major
responsibility for the continued bloodshed in fighting
against Croatia and within Bosnia-Herzegovina. The
expulsion and killing (‘ethnic cleansing’) of Albanians
from Kosovo (April-June 1999) led to NATO bombing
and missile attacks on Serbia and NATO occupation
of Kosovo under UN direction. However, Milosevic
retained power, exploiting intense Serbian national
feeling until defeated in elections held in October
2000. He reluctantly conceded defeat after huge public
demonstrations throughout Serbia, and was sent to the
Netherlands for trial before an international tribunal,
but he died suddenly before the trial concluded.
Milosz, Czeslaw (1911–2004). Polish poet, novelist
and essayist, born in Lithuania. He fought in the
Resistance but left Poland in 1951, becoming a US
resident in 1960 and a professor of Slavic literature
at Berkeley 1960–78. He won the 1980 Nobel Prize
for Literature.
Milstein, César (1927–2002). Argentinian-JewishBritish molecular biologist, born in Argentina. He
worked in Cambridge on monoclonal antibodies and
received the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1984), the
Copley Medal (1989) and a CH (1995.)
Milstein, Nathan Mironovich (1903–1992).
Russian-Jewish-American violinist, born in Odessa.
He studied with Leopold Auer and Eugène *Ysaÿe,
and is ranked with *Heifetz and *Oistrakh as one
of the greatest modern violinists, and a superb
interpreter of *Bach.