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Dictionary of World Biography
and Foreign Minister 1918. He shared the 1949
Nobel Prize for Medicine with Walter Hess for their
development of prefrontal leucotomy (a technique
now completely discredited.)
Monmouth, James Scott, Duke of (1649–1685).
English rebel, born in Holland. Son of *Charles II of
Great Britain and his mistress Lucy Walters, he went
to England after the Restoration and was created
(1663) Duke of Monmouth. On marrying Anne,
Countess of Buccleuch, he adopted her surname,
Scott, and was made Duke of Buccleuch. Spoilt by
his father and the adulation of the people, he was a
ready tool of *Shaftesbury and those who put him
forward as a candidate for succession to the throne
to the exclusion of the Duke of York (*James II).
It was even said that proofs of his legitimacy were
contained in a mysterious black box. The discovery of
the extremist Rye House plot to hasten Monmouth’s
accession by assassinating King Charles forced him to
flee to Holland (1683), but on James II’s accession
(1685) he landed at Lyme Regis and claimed the
throne. His little army, mostly peasants, was quickly
defeated at Sedgemoor, and Monmouth was captured
and executed.
Chevenix-Trench, C., The Western Rising. 1969.
Monnet, Jean (1888–1979). French bureaucrat.
Pioneer of European unity and recognised as a
founder of the European Community, he was the first
deputy secretary-general of the League of Nations
1919–23. After World War II he originated the
French Modernisation Plan and, later, the Schuman
Plan for organising European resources. This led
to the formation of the European Coal and Steel
Community of which he became President 1952–
55. Chairman of an action committee for a United
States of Europe, he was awarded the Charlemagne
Prize in 1953, the Schuman Prize (1966) and the title
‘Honorary Citizen of Europe’ (1976).
Monnet, J., Mémoires. 1976.
Monod, Jacques Lucien (1910–1976). French
biochemist. Educated at the University of Paris and
the California Institute of Technology, he was a
colonel in the Resistance during World War II and
worked at the Pasteur Institute 1945–76. He shared
the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine with André Lwoff
and François Jacob for work on the regulatory action
of genes. Monod was a brilliant controversialist and
debater, an excellent writer on the philosophy of
science (Chance and Necessity, 1970) and a gifted
cellist.
Judson, H. F., The Eighth Day of Creation. 1979.
Monroe, James (1758–1831). 5th President of
the US 1817–25. Born in Westmoreland County,
Virginia to a prominent family, his education was cut
short by the War of Independence in which he served
with distinction. He entered Virginian politics (1782)
and opposed the ratification of the US Constitution
on the grounds that it would lead to excessive federal
control of the individual states. Elected to the US
Senate 1790–94 as a strong supporter of his friend
*Jefferson, then Secretary of State, he was appointed
Minister to France 1794–96. He served as Governor
of Virginia 1799–1802 and 1811. When Jefferson
became President he sent Monroe to Europe on a
series of diplomatic missions (from 1803), on the first
of which he helped to negotiate the purchase from
*Napoléon of a vast area of the Mississippi basin (the
Louisiana Purchase). He was Minister to the United
Kingdom 1803–08. Secretary of state 1811–17, he
was Madison’s natural successor as president. In 1816
he defeated the Federalist Rufus King (1755–1827).
In 1820, the Federalists having collapsed, he was reelected without opposition. He is best remembered
for his promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine
(1823), a declaration of US opposition to further
European colonisation of the Americas and European
interference with independent governments.
Cresson, W. P., James Monroe. 1946; Cunningham,
N. E., The Presidency of James Monroe. 1996.
Monroe, Marilyn (Norma Jeane Mortenson, later
Baker) (1926–1962). American film actor, born in
Los Angeles. After a tough childhood with an unstable
mother, she became a model, and, in 1948, gained
her first bit part in a film. Her blonde beauty and
voluptuous body soon made her an international sex
symbol and she achieved enormous popular success
in a series of comedies, e.g. Seven Year Itch (1955),
The Prince and the Showgirl (1957, with Laurence
*Olivier), Some Like it Hot (1959) and The Misfits
(1961, with Clark *Gable). She married the baseball
star Joe *DiMaggio (1954) and the playwright Arthur
*Miller (1956). She combined sensuality, humour
and a certain mysterious quality. She had unfulfilled
cultural and political ambitions, took up acting
classes seriously and had close, if discreet, connections
with John and Robert *Kennedy. She died of a drug
overdose.
Mailer, N., Marilyn. 1974; Steinem, G., Marilyn.
1986.
Monsarrat, Nicholas (John Turney) (1910–1979).
British author. He began writing novels in 1934,
but it was his wartime experience in the Royal Navy
that inspired his instantly successful The Cruel Sea
(1951). He later wrote other popular sea novels.
His autobiography in two volumes, Life is a Four
Letter Word, was published 1966 and 1970.
Montagnier, Luc (1932– ). French virologist.
Director of Research at the Centre National de
Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 1974–98 , and a
professor at the Pasteur Institute 1985–2000 , he was
the leading French researcher on AIDS. In 1983 he
identified the AIDS virus but proved unable to grow
it in cells. He became involved in a bitter controversy
with the American researcher Robert *Gallo who
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