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Dictionary of World Biography
Kempis, Thomas a see Thomas a Kempis
Ken, Thomas (1637–1711). English prelate and hymn
writer. He was appointed Bishop of Bath and Wells
(1684 despite his refusal to accommodate Nell *Gwyn
during *Charles II’s visit to Winchester 1683). Under
*James II, he was one of seven bishops who refused to
sign the Declaration of Indulgence. He lost his bishopric
(1691) for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to
*William and *Mary. Later he was given a pension by
Queen *Anne and lived at Longleat until his death. His
hymns include Praise God from whom all blessings flow
and Awake, my soul.
Kendrew, Sir John Cowdery (1917–1997). English
biochemist, born in Oxford. A Fellow of Peterhouse,
Cambridge 1947–75, he shared the 1962 Nobel Prize
for Chemistry with Max *Perutz for their studies
of the structure of globular proteins, including
myoglobin. He had diverse cultural interests and
worked on public policy and philanthropy.
Keneally, Thomas Michael (1935– ). Australian
novelist and historian, born in Sydney. His books
include Three Cheers for the Paraclete (1968),
The Chant of Jimmy Blacksmith (1972, also filmed),
Season in Purgatory (1976) and Schindler’s Ark (1982,
winner of the Man Booker Prize, filmed as Schindler’s
List, 1993). He wrote impressive histories: The
Great Shame (1982), Australians. Origins to Eureka
(2009) and Australians. Eureka to the Diggers (2011).
He was a leading figure in the Australian Republican
Movement.
Kennan, George Frost (1904–2005). American
historian, diplomat and foreign policy theorist. He
served as a diplomat in Moscow (1933–38, 1945–46,
1952–53) and devised the policy of ‘containment’ of
the USSR adopted by *Truman after World War II.
He was the BBC’s Reith Lecturer (1957), a professor
at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton
1956–74, Ambassador to Yugoslavia 1961–63, and
won the Pulitzer Prize (1968) for his Memoirs.
Kennedy family. Irish-American political family
in Massachusetts. Joseph Patrick Kennedy (1888–
1969), son of a politician, educated at Harvard,
married Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (1890–1995),
daughter of the Mayor of Boston, in 1914. He
became a bank president, businessman, stockmarket speculator, investor in films, shopping
centres and imported liquor. He contributed heavily
to Democratic party funds and supported Franklin
D. *Roosevelt until 1940. Ambassador to Great
Britain 1937–40, he believed that Nazi domination
in Europe was inevitable and urged an isolationist
policy. His nine children included Joseph Patrick
(1915–1944), intended for a political career but shot
down in the USAF, *John Fitzgerald, *Robert Francis
and *Edward Moore.
458
Kennedy, Edward Moore (‘Ted’) (1932–2009).
American Democratic politician, born in Boston.
Educated at Harvard (where he was suspended)
and the Virginia Law School, he succeeded to
John F. *Kennedy’s seat as US Senator from
Massachusetts 1962–2009, winning a special election
at the minimum age, after a temporary appointee
obligingly stepped down. His presidential prospects
were damaged by an incident at Chappaquiddick
Island, Mass. (July 1969) when he failed to report
the death of a woman passenger after he drove off
a bridge. In 1980 he challenged Jimmy *Carter for
the Democratic nomination. His supporters pointed
to his courageous advocacy of unpopular, liberal
causes, his detractors to his playboy lifestyle and
heavy drinking. He was a vehement opponent of the
Iraq war and campaigner for universal health care.
In 2008 he strongly endorsed Barack *Obama for
the Democratic nomination for president. Awarded
an honorary KBE (2009), he died a year after being
diagnosed with a brain tumour.
Hersh, B., The Shadow President. 1997.
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1917–1963). 35th
President of the US 1961–63. Born in Brookline,
Mass., son of Joseph *Kennedy, he was educated at
the Choate School, (briefly) the London School of
Economics, Harvard and the Stanford Business
School. He interrupted his Harvard course to
accompany his father on his London Embassy
position and graduated in 1940 with a thesis later
published as Why England Slept. In World War II he
served in the US Navy and was decorated for heroic
rescues of crew members after PT-109 was rammed
off the Solomon Islands. This aggravated an acute
spinal injury which caused him great pain and led
to near-fatal operations (1954–55) and to Addison’s
disease. He served in the US Congress 1947–53 and
as a senator from Massachusetts 1953–60. In 1953
he married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (1929–1994)
a beautiful journalist and photographer who later
married Aristotle *Onassis and became a successful
book editor. In 1957 he won the Pulitzer Prize for
history with his (ghost-written) Profiles in Courage,
accounts of courageous senators. Oddly, his own
senate record was equivocal and he failed to speak
out against Joseph *McCarthy. After failing to secure
the Democratic vice-presidential nomination in
1956, he began his campaign for the presidency in
1957. In 1960 he defeated Richard M. *Nixon in the
closest race since 1916; Lyndon B. *Johnson became
Vice President. He was the youngest president ever
elected and the first Roman Catholic (although far
from devout). As President, he pursued the liberal
policies to which he had pledged himself, civil
rights for blacks, aid for underdeveloped countries,
and setting up the Peace Corps. However, much of
his domestic ‘New Frontier’ legislation was blocked
by Congress. The abortive ‘Bay of Pigs’ invasion of
Cuba (April 1961) showed a major error of judgment,
redeemed by his coolness in the October 1962