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Dictionary of World Biography
and ‘counter-indoctrination’ where necessary.
His books include Eros and Civilisation (1955) and
One-Dimensional Man (1964).
Margaret (known as ‘the Maid of Norway’) (1283–
1290). Queen of Scotland 1286–90. Daughter of
Eric II of Norway, she was granddaughter of the
Scottish king *Alexander III whose death (1286) left
her as sole heir to the throne. *Edward I of England
intended that she should marry his son (afterwards
*Edward II) and so effect the union of the two
crowns, but the scheme came to nothing as she died
aboard the ship that was carrying her to Scotland, and
union came only several centuries later.
Margaret (1353–1412). Queen of Norway. Daughter
of King Valdemar of Denmark and wife of Haakon VI
of Norway she became, on her father’s death (1376),
regent for her son Olaf, infant King of Denmark
and (1380) of Norway. A tribute to her qualities was
paid when on Olaf ’s sudden death (1387) she was
permitted to continue her rule of both countries. In
1389 at the request of dissident nobles in Sweden
she defeated King Albrecht and added that country
(nominally on behalf of her grand-nephew, Eric of
Pomerania) to the area under her control. By the
Union of Kalmar (1397) Eric became King of all
three countries but Margaret maintained her strong
personal rule until her death.
Margaret of Anjou (1430–1482). English queen
consort 1445–61, 1470–71. She married *Henry VI
in 1445. A cousin of the French king and daughter
of René, Duke of Anjou, titular king of Sicily and
Jerusalem, her French birth made her very unpopular
in England. When the Wars of the Roses broke
out and her saintly husband began to show mental
incapacity, she was, with her courage and strength of
character, the life and soul of the Lancastrian cause.
She was finally captured after the Battle of Tewkesbury
(1471), where her son Edward was killed, and she was
imprisoned until ransomed by *Louis XI of France.
Bagley, J. J., Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England.
Margaret (Marguerite) of Navarre (1492–1549).
French author, Queen of Navarre. Sister of *François
I of France, through her marriage to *Henri II of
Navarre she became the grandmother of *Henri IV of
France and the ancestress of the Bourbon kings. She
was learned and pious but also gay and tolerant; her
courts became centres of humanist culture and places
of refuge for persecuted scholars. In the Heptameron,
following the pattern set by *Boccaccio’s Decameron,
five gentlemen and ladies held up by the floods beguile
the time with stories, but though ribaldry is present in
her stories, Margaret, unlike Boccaccio, treats love as
a serious, and often tragic passion.
Margaret (Rose) (1930–2002). British princess.
Younger daughter of King *George VI and sister of
Queen *Elizabeth II, she was born at Glamis Castle
in Scotland, the seat of her mother’s family. She
married (1960) Antony Armstrong-Jones, a London
photographer, afterwards created Earl of *Snowdon;
they divorced in 1978.
Margaret (Tudor) (1489–1541). Scottish queen
consort 1503–13. Daughter of *Henry VII of
England, her marriage (1503) to *James IV of
Scotland provided the link between the Tudor and
Stewart (Stuart) dynasties, upon which depended
the union of the crowns of the two countries under
*James VI and I, the first king of Great Britain.
After her husband’s death at Flodden, she married
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, who headed
the English faction at the Scottish court.
Margrethe II (1940– ). Queen of Denmark 1972– .
Daughter of King *Frederick IX, she travelled
extensively, illustrated *Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings and
became a British LG.
Maria Theresa (Maria Theresia) (1717–1780).
Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and
Bohemia 1740–80, Empress consort 1745–65.
Daughter and heiress of the emperor *Charles VI
she became Empress when her husband *Franz
of Lorraine (married 1736) was elected Emperor
(1745). By the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles VI had
sought to guarantee his daughter’s succession to all
Habsburg lands but on his death (1740) *Friedrich
II (the Great) of Prussia invaded Silesia and provoked
the War of the Austrian Succession, as a result of
which he retained the province but recognised the
Pragmatic Sanction in other respects. By making an
alliance with France, Maria Theresa hoped to regain
Silesia but failed to achieve her purpose in the Seven
Years’ War (1756–63). She was an unwilling partner
in the partition of Poland (1772), from which she
acquired Galicia. In the administration of her many
territories, Maria Theresa proved herself a wise
and prudent practitioner of the system of paternal
government then in vogue. She freed the peasants
from many feudal burdens, abolished torture and did
much to foster education, trade and industry and to
reform the legal and taxation systems. She associated
her son *Joseph II with herself as ruler when he was
elected Emperor on his father’s death (1765). Her 15
other children included the emperor *Leopold II and
*Marie Antoinette, Queen of France.
Pick, R., Empress Maria Theresa. 1966.
Marie Antoinette (1755–1793). Queen consort
of France 1774–92. Daughter of *Maria Theresa of
Austria, she married the future *Louis XVI of France
in 1770, four years before he became King. She
retained his complete devotion throughout his life.
Her frivolity and extravagance made her unpopular
but she was not unkind. She was further discredited
by an obscure confidence trick by which Cardinal de
Rohan was induced to promise payment for a diamond
necklace of great value allegedly for the queen.