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Dictionary of World Biography
bust of her, one of the world’s greatest art works, was
found in Tel-el-Amarna (Akhetaton) 1912–13 and
first displayed in Berlin in 1923.
Negrin, Juan (1891–1956). Spanish politician. As
a professor at the University of Madrid he played an
active role in the socialist party. On the outbreak of
the Spanish Civil War Negrin’s resolution singled him
out as a leader and he was Premier 1937–39. He took
refuge in France and England on the Republican
Neguib, Mohammed (1901–1984). Egyptian
general. With *Nasser as his deputy, he led the revolt
(1952) by which King Farouk was dethroned. After
being Prime Minister 1952, and then President
1952–54 he was forced into retirement by Nasser.
Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889–1964). Indian politician,
born in Allahabad. A Kashmiri Brahmin by descent,
he was son of Motilal Nehru (1861–1931) a rich
lawyer who had led the Swaraj (Home Rule) party.
Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge
(where Bertrand *Russell was his tutor), he was
admitted to the English bar and returned to India
in 1916. From the moment he met *Gandhi his life
was given to politics. He joined the Indian National
Congress (1918) and was President in 1929 and four
times subsequently. He was not a pacifist like Gandhi
and did not share his economic views but his personal
devotion was intense, and while agitation and
propaganda were the main activities their differences
lacked practical importance. Nehru’s terms of
imprisonment 1921, 1926–29, 1931–34, 1942–44
increased his influence. Complete independence was
always his aim for India and after the failure of the
*Cripps mission he was interned for his rebellious
attitude. After the war, when the subcontinent was
partitioned between India and Pakistan, Nehru’s
prestige inevitably made him the first Prime Minister
of India 1947–64 (and also Foreign Minister 1946–
64). Owing to the immense difficulties of his task
his success was only partial. He kept his country
within the Commonwealth, achieved some success
with industrialisation and maintained democratic
forms of government, with stability and order. But
the Kashmir problem remained unsolved and he
shocked world opinion by invading Goa. His policy
of nonalignment with the eastern or western power
blocs did not prevent the Chinese invasion of 1962.
Nevertheless when he died the consensus was that a
great influence for good had gone from the world.
His daughter Indira *Gandhi became Prime Minister
in 1966. He wrote an autobiography (1936) and
several historical works including Glimpses of World
History (1939) written from an Asian perspective.
Gopal, S., Jawaharlal Nehru. 2 vols. 1975 and 1979.
Nelson, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount (1758–
1805). English sailor, born in Burnham Thorpe,
Norfolk. Son of a clergyman, he joined the navy
(1770) and served in the Arctic, North America, and
the West Indies 1783–87, where he married a widow
Frances Nisbet. He lived, unemployed, on half pay
in Norfolk 1787–93 until recalled to service by war
with France. He served in the Mediterranean (with
spectacular actions in the North Atlantic) 1793–97,
1798–1800, 1803–05, gaining rapid promotion and
a reputation as an outstanding leader. In the battle
of Cape St Vincent, off Portugal (February 1797), as
second-in-command to Sir John Jervis (later Earl of
*St Vincent), he took a decisive role in defeating a
larger Spanish squadron and received a knighthood.
He lost the sight of his right eye in an assault on Calvi,
Corsica (1794) and his right arm was shattered and
amputated in a failed action at Tenerife in the Canary
Islands to capture a treasure ship (1797). In the Battle
of the Nile (August 1798), Nelson, having pursued
the French Mediterranean Fleet to Aboukir (Abu
Qir) Bay, off Alexandria, destroyed it and cut off
Bonaparte’s forces in Egypt. He was created a baron
in 1798. In Naples in 1793 he had met Sir William
and Lady (Emma) *Hamilton; five years later she
became his mistress with her husband’s apparent
approval. They often travelled as a ménage à trois
and Nelson was prominent in Neapolitan society.
King *Ferdinand I appointed him commander of
his fleet and created him Duke of Brontë (1799).
The Admiralty disapproved of Nelson’s Neapolitan
involvements and made him deputy Commander
in Chief of the North Sea and Baltic Fleet 1801–03.
He won the Battle of Copenhagen (1801), inflicted
heavy losses on the Danes, Napoléon’s allies, and
was promoted Viscount (1801) and Vice Admiral.
Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet
1803–05, he kept watch on Toulon for two years
but the French admiral *Villeneuve used bad
weather as an opportunity to escape, planning to
link up with the French Atlantic fleet as part of a
proposed invasion of Britain. At Trafalgar (just west
of Gibraltar), 21 October 1805, Nelson had his last
and greatest victory, when his 27 ships defeated a
French-Spanish fleet of 33, establishing British naval
supremacy for a century. Fatally shot by a French
sniper on his flagship HMS Victory, he was buried in
St Paul’s Cathedral after a great upsurge of national
grief and patriotism, in the tomb designed for
Cardinal *Wolsey. Nelson, subject of many legends,
created a new leadership style, involving consultation
with other officers and improving conditions at sea.
He became extraordinarily popular with both sailors
and public, although *Wellington (understandably
envious) thought him absurdly vain. His brother
William was created 1st Earl Nelson (1805).
Pocock, T., Horatio Nelson. 1987.
Nenni, Pietro (1891–1980). Italian Socialist
politician. Exiled by *Mussolini (1926), he fought
for the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. After
Mussolini’s fall (1943) he was able to resume political
life in Italy and became President of the Socialist
Party. In the postwar coalitions he was a deputy prime