* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Dictionary of World Biography Nicholson, Ben(edict) (1894â1982). British abstract artist. Son of Sir William *Nicholson and husband (1938â51) of the sculptor Barbara *Hepworth, in the 1930s he was a member of the Unit One Group of British artists seeking a truly contemporary approach, and he developed a style allied to the Russian âconstructivismâ and to *Mondrian. His work was first exhibited at the Venice Biennale in 1934, after which he exhibited widely and gained an international reputation. He was awarded the OM in 1968. Nicholson, Jack (1937âÂ ). American actor and film director. His films included Easy Rider (1969, Academy Award), Carnal Knowledge (1971), Chinatown (1974), The Passenger (directed by *Antonioni, 1974), One Flew over the Cuckooâs Nest (1975, Academy Award), Terms of Endearment (1984, Academy Award), Prizziâs Honour (1984), The Witches of Eastwick (1986), Batman (as the Joker, 1989), AÂ Few Good Men (1992), Hoffa (1992) and As Good As It Gets (1998, Academy Award). Nicholson, Sir William (Newzam Prior) (1872â 1949). English painter and engraver. He won an international reputation with the posters executed (in collaboration with James Pryde) under the pseudonym âThe Beggarstaff Brothersâ. He designed the first stage settings for Peter Pan and painted many cool still lives e.g. The Hundred Jugs (1916), Onions and soup pot (1923). He taught Winston *Churchill to paint. Nicias (d.414 BCE). Athenian politician and general. Cautious, conservative and virtuous, he was, after the death of *Pericles, the most important of the âgeneralsâ (popularly elected commanders) left to carry on the Peloponnesian War against Sparta. His efforts for peace and pleas for prudence were constantly thwarted by the demagogue Cleon and by the headstrong *Alcibiades, who with Lamachus was appointed to share with Nicias the command of an attack upon Syracuse in Sicily, then a Spartan colony. When Alcibiades was recalled for impiety and Lamachus killed, Nicias was left in sole command of an expedition in which he did not believe. In the event he delayed evacuation too long, the Athenians were all killed or captured and Nicias taken and put to death. Nicolle, Charles Jules Henri (1866â1936). French bacteriologist. Director of the Pasteur Institute at Tunis, he discovered (1909) that the body louse transmits typhus fever, and he also claimed success for immunisation against trachoma. He won the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1928). Nicolson, Sir Harold George (1886â1968). English author, born in Teheran. Son of Lord Carnock, educated at Oxford, he became a diplomat and in 1913 married the poet Vita *Sackville-West. He was a National Labour (virtually independent) MP 1935â 45. He wrote lives of *Byron, *Curzon and the official biography of *George V (1952) for which he received 618 a KCVO. Other books include Some People (1927), Public Faces (1932) and Good Behaviour (1955). His Diaries and Letters 1930â62 (3 vols. 1966â68), edited by his son Nigel Nicolson, are valuable source documents for the period. Nicolson, N., Portrait of a Marriage. 1973. Niebuhr, Barthold Georg (1776â1831). German historian. After many years spent in public service, culminating with a term as Prussian Ambassador in Rome 1816â23, he lectured at Bonn on ancient history. His great History of Rome (3 volumes, 1811, 1812, 1832) set new standards of scholarship by his critical examination of original sources. Many of his conclusions remain unchallenged. Niebuhr, Reinhold (1892â1971). American theologian. Educated at Yale, he taught at the Union Theological Seminary, New York 1928â60 and wrote many books, including The Nature and Destiny of Man (1941â43), which promoted the concept of a âsocial gospelâ with a heavy political emphasis. Nielsen, Carl August (1865â1931). Danish composer. His Symphony No. 1 (1892â94) shows the influence of *Brahms, but other works of the 1890s illustrate a tendency towards combining contradictory keys which, first asserted prominently in the Symphony No. 2 (1902), led Nielsen towards polytonality. In 1915 he became Director of the Copenhagen Conservatoire. His works include four more symphonies, the comic opera Maskarade (1906) and a violin concerto (1911). Grimley, D., Carl Nielsen and the Idea of Modernism.2010. Niemeyer, Oscar(in full, Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho) (1907â2012). Brazilian architect. Strongly influenced by *Le Corbusierâs functional architecture, he designed many strikingly original buildings in Rio de Janeiro and SÃ£o Paulo and was commissioned to design (1956) the principal buildings for the city of Brasilia, the new capital of Brazil. He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1963 (LÃºcio *Costa). NiemÃ¶ller, Martin (1892â1984). German Lutheran pastor. After being a submarine commander in World War I he was ordained in 1924. He at first supported but later actively opposed the Nazi regime and was held in a concentration camp from 1937 until the end of World War II. He was President of the World Council of Churches 1961â68. Schmidt, D., Pastor NiemÃ¶ller. 1959. Niepce, Joseph NicÃ©phore (1765â1833). French inventor. He devised heliography, using sunlight to fix images on plates coated with Jericho pitch as early as 1822, and this was the precursor of photography. He later collaborated with *Daguerre who developed a much faster process for fixing sharper images.