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Dictionary of World Biography
incorporating many tiny crystals that polarised light.
This was used in Polaroid sunglasses and the Polaroid
Land camera, which provided immediate prints.
Landon, Alfred Mossman (1887–1987). American
politician and businessman. An oil producer in
Kansas he later acquired radio and TV interests.
He was Governor of Kansas 1933–37 and
Republican presidential candidate in 1936, suffering
an overwhelming defeat by Franklin D. *Roosevelt.
AÂ rural progressive, he was a strong supporter of
the United Nations and urged recognition of Mao’s
China. His daughter, Nancy Landon Kassebaum
(1932– ), was a US senator from Kansas 1979–97.
Landor, Walter Savage (1775–1864). English writer,
born in Warwick. The consequences of an irascible
nature which caused him to be removed from
Rugby and rusticated from Oxford, pursued Landor
throughout his life. Although he was impressive both
physically and intellectually his life was a series of
quarrels and lonely wanderings. From 1815 to 1835,
the year in which they had their decisive quarrel, he
lived in Italy with his wife. Despite his pugnacity
his impulses were nearly always generous. Much of
his inherited wealth was used to equip volunteers
for the Peninsular War, more went into a scheme
of agricultural and social reform at Llanthony.
He turned over his property to his children only to
be rewarded by ingratitude and he would have died
in extreme poverty had not Robert and Elizabeth
*Browning rallied his brothers to his support and
enabled him to spend his last years in Florence in a
comparative tranquillity. Except by a few his literary
work was never highly esteemed: his best known book
is Imaginary Conversations (1824–29).
Landowska, Wanda Louise (1879–1959). Polish
pianist, harpsichordist and musicologist, born in
Warsaw. She lived in France 1900–40 and in the
US from 1940 onwards, becoming famous for her
energetic interpretations of *Händel, *Bach, *Scarlatti
and other 17th- and 18th-century composers.
She was responsible for the modern revival of the
harpsichord, and concertos were written for her by
*Falla and *Poulenc.
Landseer, Sir Edwin Henry (1802–1873). English
painter. He gained immense popularity with his
animal pictures, especially of deer and dogs which, in
the excellent engravings made by his brother, appeared
in countless Victorian homes. Despite a certain
sentimentality of subject, his animals are natural and
realistic and his drawings reveal a much wider and
less conventional talent. The lions of Trafalgar Square,
London, were modelled by him.
Landsteiner,
Karl
(1868–1943).
AustrianAmerican pathologist, born in Vienna. Working
at the University of Vienna, he became famous for
his discovery (1901) of the four main human blood
groups, A, B, AB and O. He won the Nobel Prize
for Medicine in 1930 for this. He worked for the
Rockefeller Institute in New York from 1922 until his
death. He also discovered, in collaboration with A. S.
Wiener, the Rh factor, so called because it was first
found in the Rhesus monkey.
Lane, Sir Allen (Williams) (1902–1970). English
publisher. He founded Penguin Books which
grew from modest beginnings (1935) into one of
Britain’s major publishing houses within a few years,
pioneering the paperback book. His uncle John
Lane (1854–1925), of the Bodley Head, published
the famous Yellow Book, the art quarterly which
with Aubrey *Beardsley’s illustrations was a succès de
scandale in the 1890s.
Murpurgo, J., Allen Lane: King Penguin. 1979.
Lanfranc (1005?-1089). Italian prelate in England.
He left Italy (c.1039) and founded a law school at
Avranches which became famous. Later he became
prior (1045) of the Abbey of Bec in Normandy. He
came to the notice of Duke *William, whose gratitude
he earned by obtaining papal dispensation for his
marriage. Thus when William conquered England,
Lanfranc was rewarded (1070) with the archbishopric
of Canterbury. He reorganised the English Church to
meet the changes caused by the conquest and showed
his legal talent and diplomatic skill in reconciling the
demands of a reforming pope (*Gregory VII) and an
autocratic king.
Lang of Lambeth, Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron
(1864–1945). Scottish Anglican prelate, born in
Fyvie. Educated at Glasgow and Oxford universities,
and originally a Presbyterian, he became an Anglican
priest in 1890. He made his mark by his demeanour,
eloquence and social work, and became suffragan
Bishop of Stepney 1901–08, then, in a meteoric rise,
Archbishop of York 1908–28 and Archbishop of
Canterbury 1928–42. His vehement opposition to
*Edward VIII’s proposed marriage to Mrs Simpson
was a decisive factor in the King’s abdication
(December 1936). Unmarried, he developed an
embarrassing passion for the actress Anne Todd.
Lockhart J. G., Cosmo Gordon Lang. 1949; Beaken,
R., Cosmo Lang: Archbishop in War and Crisis. 2012.
Lang, Fritz (1890–1976). German film director,
born in Vienna. Originally an architect, his early films
were important examples of Expressionism, including
Dr Mabuse, the gambler (1922), Nibelungen (1925),
Metropolis (1926), and M (1932). He worked in the
US 1933–58, directing a variety of films including
Westerns, thrillers and psychological dramas.
Lang, Jack (John Thomas) (1876–1975). Australian
Labor politician, born in Sydney. A member of the
New South Wales Parliament 1913–46, he was
ALP State leader 1923–39. As Premier of NSW
1925–27 and 1930–32, he introduced welfare state
measures and promoted construction of the Sydney
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